Abstract

The rotational Raman scattered light from nitrogen present in a flame is analyzed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer whose free spectral range is matched to the frequency separation of the Raman lines. The resulting interferograms are fit to theoretical interferograms using a least-χ2 technique. Flame temperatures obtained from this analysis are compared to in situ thermocouple measurements with reasonable agreement. The measured temperatures are compared to other published data, and sources of error are discussed.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Fristrom, A. A. Westenberg, Flame Structure (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).
  3. G. Alessandretti, Opt. Acta 27, 1095 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 801 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. L. Armstrong, Appl. Opt. 14, 383 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Smith, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.
  7. A. S. Gilbert, H. J. Bernstein, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 161.
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Salzman, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Hickman, L. H. Liang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 796 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. Barrett, S. A. Myers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1246 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Stephenson, R. J. Blint, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 41 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Penney, R. L. St. Peters, M. Lapp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 712 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Placzek, E. Teller, Z. Phys. 81, 209 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Barrett, A. Weber, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 205 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Sundius, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 471 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).
  19. P. J. Hargis, R. A. Hill, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 219 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. L. Armstrong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 871 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1945).
  22. R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. A. Stephenson, R. A. William, Combust. Flame 32, 111 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flame (Wiley, New York, 1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Luck, W. Thielen, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. W. Welch, Lockheed Aircraft Co., private communication (1981).
  28. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  29. E. J. Burlbaw, Dissertation, New Mexico State U. (1982).
  30. J. R. Sandercock, J. Phys. E 9, 566 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. J. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, Appl. Opt. 12, 126 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

G. Alessandretti, Opt. Acta 27, 1095 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

D. A. Stephenson, R. A. William, Combust. Flame 32, 111 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Luck, W. Thielen, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

J. R. Sandercock, J. Phys. E 9, 566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Barrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 801 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1974 (3)

1973 (2)

1972 (1)

R. S. Hickman, L. H. Liang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 796 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (3)

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Barrett, S. A. Myers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1246 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

G. Placzek, E. Teller, Z. Phys. 81, 209 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Alessandretti, G.

G. Alessandretti, Opt. Acta 27, 1095 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

Barrett, J. J.

Bechtel, J. H.

R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, H. J.

A. S. Gilbert, H. J. Bernstein, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Blint, R. J.

R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stephenson, R. J. Blint, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Burlbaw, E. J.

E. J. Burlbaw, Dissertation, New Mexico State U. (1982).

Butcher, R. J.

R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, J.

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fristrom, R. M.

R. M. Fristrom, A. A. Westenberg, Flame Structure (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Gaydon, A. G.

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flame (Wiley, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, A. S.

A. S. Gilbert, H. J. Bernstein, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

Hargis, P. J.

Hendra, P. J.

P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G. J.

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1945).

Hickman, R. S.

R. S. Hickman, L. H. Liang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 796 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. A.

Jones, W. J.

R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M.

C. M. Penney, R. L. St. Peters, M. Lapp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Lapp, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

Liang, L. H.

R. S. Hickman, L. H. Liang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 796 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Luck, K. L.

K. L. Luck, W. Thielen, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71 (1978).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, J. J.

P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Mills, O. A.

Moss, R.

P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. A.

Penney, C. M.

Peters, R. L. St.

Placzek, G.

G. Placzek, E. Teller, Z. Phys. 81, 209 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J. A.

J. A. Salzman, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.
[CrossRef]

Sandercock, J. R.

J. R. Sandercock, J. Phys. E 9, 566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. R.

J. R. Smith, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.

Stephenson, D. A.

R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stephenson, R. J. Blint, Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 41 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stephenson, R. A. William, Combust. Flame 32, 111 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sundius, T.

T. Sundius, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 471 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Teller, E.

G. Placzek, E. Teller, Z. Phys. 81, 209 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, W.

K. L. Luck, W. Thielen, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vear, C. J.

P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

J. J. Barrett, A. Weber, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 205 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Welch, C. W.

C. W. Welch, Lockheed Aircraft Co., private communication (1981).

Westenberg, A. A.

R. M. Fristrom, A. A. Westenberg, Flame Structure (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Willetts, D. V.

R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
[CrossRef]

William, R. A.

D. A. Stephenson, R. A. William, Combust. Flame 32, 111 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Combust. Flame (1)

D. A. Stephenson, R. A. William, Combust. Flame 32, 111 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

J. J. Barrett, A. Weber, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 50, 205 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Phys. E (1)

J. R. Sandercock, J. Phys. E 9, 566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

R. J. Blint, J. H. Bechtel, D. A. Stephenson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 23, 89 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. (1)

K. L. Luck, W. Thielen, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 20, 71 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

T. Sundius, J. Raman Spectrosc. 1, 471 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

G. Alessandretti, Opt. Acta 27, 1095 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

R. J. Butcher, D. V. Willetts, W. J. Jones, Proc. R. Soc. London 324, 231 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. S. Hickman, L. H. Liang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 796 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

G. Placzek, E. Teller, Z. Phys. 81, 209 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1945).

M. Lapp, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fristrom, A. A. Westenberg, Flame Structure (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

J. R. Smith, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.

A. S. Gilbert, H. J. Bernstein, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 161.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salzman, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 179.
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hendra, C. J. Vear, R. Moss, J. J. MacFarlane, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

A. G. Gaydon, The Spectroscopy of Flame (Wiley, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Welch, Lockheed Aircraft Co., private communication (1981).

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

E. J. Burlbaw, Dissertation, New Mexico State U. (1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical nitrogen Stokes spectra at 300 and 1000 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical nitrogen interferograms at 300 and 1500 K (with the same normalization).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical interferogram of nitrogen with 20% oxygen at 300 K before and after convolution with an experimental instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Overview of the experimental apparatus: L, lens; M, mirror; RAMP, high voltage ramp for scanning the plates; PMT, photomultiplier tube; HV, high voltage supply for PMT; AMP, 40-dB ac amplifier; DISC, discriminator; MCA, multichannel analyzer; MINICOMPUTER, DEC PDP-11 minicomputer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram showing the two main regions of error as described in text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flame temperature profile at 2.5 cm above the porous plug burner.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flame temperature profile at 2.0 cm above the porous plug burner.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flame temperature profile at 1.5 cm above the porous plug burner.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Flame temperature profile at 1.0 cm above the porous plug burner.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Flame temperature profile at 0.5 cm above the porous plug burner.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of Reduction of Forty-one Data Sets from which the Flame Temperature Profile is Constructed

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( J ) = PNL F J σ J ,
b J J + 2 = 3 ( J + 1 ) ( J + 2 ) 2 ( 2 J + 1 ) ( 2 J + 3 ) ,
b J J 2 = 3 J ( J 1 ) 2 ( 2 J 1 ) ( 2 J 1 ) .
I S = K 0 ( J + 1 ) ( J + 2 ) ( 2 J + 3 ) B T [ ω 0 ω ( J ) ] g J × exp [ F ( J ) h c / k T ]
I A = K 0 ( J + 1 ) ( J + 2 ) ( 2 J + 3 ) B T [ ω 0 + ω ( J ) ] g J × exp [ F ( J + 2 ) h c / k T ]
T ( ω ) = T max [ 1 + ( 2 F 0 π ) 2 sin 2 ( δ 2 ) ] 1 ,
1 F 0 2 = 1 F R 2 + 1 F F 2 + 1 F P 2 .
σ = ( 2 μ d ) 1
J max = ½ + ( k T / 2 Bhc ) 1 / 2 .

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