Abstract

Laser action in HCl and HBr with a short-length-cavity TEA laser has been investigated. Support of the discharge by preionization resulted in reliable operation with pulse-to-pulse stability of better than 5%. Both efficient multiline and single-line operation are described. Maximum output energies of 120 and 35 mJ were measured in multiline operation, and 55 and 6 mJ were obtained from a single line for HCl and HBr, respectively. Energy conversion was 0.89 and 0.26% for the HCl and HBr system.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. N. Suchard, J. R. Airey, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers, R. W. F. Gross, J. F. Bott, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.
  2. T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3304 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 93 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 370 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 907 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 5319 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.
  8. I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 811 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Airey, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. J. Arnold, K. D. Foster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. N. Rutt, J. Phys. D 12, 345 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Oodate, T. Fujioka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 227 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Inoue, S. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1421 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).

1980 (1)

K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. N. Rutt, J. Phys. D 12, 345 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 5319 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Arnold, K. D. Foster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, T. Fujioka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 227 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

G. Inoue, S. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 93 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 370 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

J. R. Airey, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3304 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Airey, J. R.

J. R. Airey, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Suchard, J. R. Airey, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers, R. W. F. Gross, J. F. Bott, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

Arnold, S. J.

S. J. Arnold, K. D. Foster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, (1978).
[CrossRef]

Burak, I.

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 370 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 93 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cool, T. A.

T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3304 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Foster, K. D.

S. J. Arnold, K. D. Foster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, T.

H. Oodate, T. Fujioka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 227 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gamo, H.

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Horwitz, A. B.

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 5319 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, G.

G. Inoue, S. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 5319 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, R.

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Namba, S.

K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Noter, Y.

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Oodate, H.

H. Oodate, T. Fujioka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 227 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Osada, H.

K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Oyama, T.

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Ronn, A. M.

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rutt, H. N.

H. N. Rutt, J. Phys. D 12, 345 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, R. R.

T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3304 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suchard, S. N.

S. N. Suchard, J. R. Airey, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers, R. W. F. Gross, J. F. Bott, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

Szoke, A.

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

Tsuchiya, S.

G. Inoue, S. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 370 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 93 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 93 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 370 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 272 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Arnold, K. D. Foster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Burak, Y. Noter, A. M. Ronn, A. Szoke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 322 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electr. Eng. Jpn. (1)

H. Oodate, M. Obara, T. Fujioka, Electr. Eng. Jpn. 95, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Oodate, T. Fujioka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 227 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, O. R. Wood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 5319 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Cool, R. R. Stephens, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3304 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Airey, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. N. Rutt, J. Phys. D 12, 345 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Paris Colloq. (1)

K. Toyoda, H. Osada, S. Namba, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. 41, C9-251 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Inoue, S. Tsuchiya, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1421 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. B. Horwitz, S. R. Leone, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. N. Suchard, J. R. Airey, in Handbook of Chemical Lasers, R. W. F. Gross, J. F. Bott, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

H. Osada, T. Oyama, K. Toyoda, R. Nakane, S. Namba, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest, Conference on Laser and Electro-Optical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), Paper WCC21.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser system: D, detector; E, end mounts support the Brewster windows BW; F, flowmeter; L, CaF2 lens, 15-cm focal length; M, totally reflecting mirror; N, nozzle; OC, output coupler; P, Monel metal pressure gauge; PE, spectrometer; S, tank of Cl2/Br2; T, trap; V, valves; X, storage oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section through the laser cavity showing the preionization spark gaps PRE-SG and 920-pF secondary capacitors. The primary discharge, initiated by the trigger TR and spark gap SG, discharges the main capacitor MC via the shim cathode SC, Rogowsky anode RA, and the ground resistor GR (optimum value 12.5 Ω).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time evolution of the multiline HBr laser output.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output energy as a function of output coupling for the multiline HCl laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output energy as a function of output coupling for the multiline HBr laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-line output of the HCl laser obtained with the intracavity grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Single-line output of the HBr laser obtained with the intracavity grating.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R 1 = tan 2 ( i r ) tan 2 ( i + r ) , and R 2 = tan 2 ( r i ) tan 2 ( i + r ) ,
S = ( 1 R 1 ) ( 1 R 2 ) exp ( t β / cos r ) ,
T = 1 S 2 m ( 1 T fix ) ,
P 0 = T P obs S m T fix .
P 0 = ( A I s 2 ) [ g 0 L i + ln ( 1 T ) ] T L i + T ,
exp ( 2 l γ t 2 l α ) R 1 R 2 = 1 ,
2 l γ t = L i ln ( 1 T ) ,

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