Abstract

Design considerations for atmospheric optical communication systems using wide divergent beams are described. This new approach can eliminate the need for complex gimbaled pointing and tracking mountings. Communicating systems have been designed and built using both infrared LED and cw and pulsed laser diodes operating in the wavelength range of λ = 0.8–0.9 μm. Both single-channel and multichannel receivers were designed with fields of view (FOVs) ranging from 0.4 to 24°. Receiver performances were compared for a range close to 1 km under various ambient conditions. Laboratory simulation experiments were used to determine the operating margin and expected SNRs resulting from various design considerations. The need for narrow spectral bandwidth and wide-angle FOV interference filters is pointed out. The systems designed in the present work were low data rate (a few kbit/sec) communication systems and are suitable for aircraft-to-aircraft data exchange or voice communication.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Goodwin, Proc. IEEE 58, 1746 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. W. S. Chan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 10 (1981).
  4. S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).
  5. R. W. Svorec, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 66 (1981).
  6. A. K. Majumdar, G. Fortescue, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982). paper THW5.
  7. L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).
  8. G. C. Mooradian, Opt. Eng. 20, 071 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. L. Richard, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 55 (1981).
  10. R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. N. Rodgers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 150, 108 (1978).
  12. E. Bourkoff, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269, 25 (1981).
  13. R. T. Menzies, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena; private communication (1983).
  14. W. K. Pratt, Laser Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1969).
  15. The values are for some typical situations. See, for example, Ref. 14 and H. S. Stewart, R. F. Hopfield, in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 1, R. Kingslake Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965).
  16. R. M. Langer, “Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapour on near Infrared Transmission at Sea Level,” Report on Signal Corps contract DA-36-039-SC-723351, J. R. M. Bege Co., Arlington, Mass. (May1957) (as in Ref. 14).
  17. R. M. Lerner, Appl. Opt. 10, 1914 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. H. Shapiro, C. Warde, Opt. Eng. 20, 076 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Title, Lockheed Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif.; private communication (1982);see also Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).
  20. W. L. Wolfe, Ed., Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), Chap. 5.
  21. R. B. Battele, P. R. Gillette, R. C. Honey, “An Analysis of the Feasibility of Laser Systems for Naval Applications (u),” Defense Doc. Center Rep. ASTIA Doc. AD-350353 (Nov.1963) [as referenced in N. S. Kopeika, J. Bodogna, Proc. IEEE 58, 1571 (1970)].
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976);V. E. Zuev's paper in the same book.

1982

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

E. Bourkoff, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269, 25 (1981).

J. H. Shapiro, C. Warde, Opt. Eng. 20, 076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. W. S. Chan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 10 (1981).

S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).

R. W. Svorec, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 66 (1981).

G. C. Mooradian, Opt. Eng. 20, 071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Richard, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 55 (1981).

1979

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

1978

T. N. Rodgers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 150, 108 (1978).

1972

D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

1970

F. E. Goodwin, Proc. IEEE 58, 1746 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Battele, R. B.

R. B. Battele, P. R. Gillette, R. C. Honey, “An Analysis of the Feasibility of Laser Systems for Naval Applications (u),” Defense Doc. Center Rep. ASTIA Doc. AD-350353 (Nov.1963) [as referenced in N. S. Kopeika, J. Bodogna, Proc. IEEE 58, 1571 (1970)].
[CrossRef]

Bourkoff, E.

E. Bourkoff, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269, 25 (1981).

Bridges, W. B.

D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. F.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

V. W. S. Chan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 10 (1981).

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976);V. E. Zuev's paper in the same book.

Dolezal, F. A.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).

Forster, D. C.

D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fortescue, G.

A. K. Majumdar, G. Fortescue, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982). paper THW5.

Gagliardi, R.

S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).

Gillette, P. R.

R. B. Battele, P. R. Gillette, R. C. Honey, “An Analysis of the Feasibility of Laser Systems for Naval Applications (u),” Defense Doc. Center Rep. ASTIA Doc. AD-350353 (Nov.1963) [as referenced in N. S. Kopeika, J. Bodogna, Proc. IEEE 58, 1571 (1970)].
[CrossRef]

Goodwin, F. E.

D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Goodwin, Proc. IEEE 58, 1746 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, G. A.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. A.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Honey, R. C.

R. B. Battele, P. R. Gillette, R. C. Honey, “An Analysis of the Feasibility of Laser Systems for Naval Applications (u),” Defense Doc. Center Rep. ASTIA Doc. AD-350353 (Nov.1963) [as referenced in N. S. Kopeika, J. Bodogna, Proc. IEEE 58, 1571 (1970)].
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, R. F.

The values are for some typical situations. See, for example, Ref. 14 and H. S. Stewart, R. F. Hopfield, in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 1, R. Kingslake Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965).

Hyde, M. E.

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Kihm, R. T.

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Langer, R. M.

R. M. Langer, “Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapour on near Infrared Transmission at Sea Level,” Report on Signal Corps contract DA-36-039-SC-723351, J. R. M. Bege Co., Arlington, Mass. (May1957) (as in Ref. 14).

Lerner, R. M.

Majumdar, A. K.

A. K. Majumdar, G. Fortescue, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982). paper THW5.

Mather, R. L.

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Menzies, R. T.

R. T. Menzies, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena; private communication (1983).

Mooradian, G. C.

G. C. Mooradian, Opt. Eng. 20, 071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Peressini, E. R.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Laser Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1969).

Richard, H. L.

H. L. Richard, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 55 (1981).

Rodgers, T. N.

T. N. Rodgers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 150, 108 (1978).

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976);V. E. Zuev's paper in the same book.

Shapiro, J. H.

J. H. Shapiro, C. Warde, Opt. Eng. 20, 076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, H. S.

The values are for some typical situations. See, for example, Ref. 14 and H. S. Stewart, R. F. Hopfield, in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 1, R. Kingslake Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965).

Stotts, L. B.

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Sutter, L. V.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Svorec, R. W.

R. W. Svorec, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 66 (1981).

Title, A.

A. Title, Lockheed Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif.; private communication (1982);see also Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

Vilnrotter, V.

S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).

Warde, C.

J. H. Shapiro, C. Warde, Opt. Eng. 20, 076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, R. D.

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. C. Forster, F. E. Goodwin, W. B. Bridges, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 263 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

G. C. Mooradian, Opt. Eng. 20, 071 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shapiro, C. Warde, Opt. Eng. 20, 076 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, C. F. Brown, G. A. Griffith, L. V. Sutter, F. A. Dolezal, R. D. Washburn, E. R. Peressini, Opt. Eng. 21, 794 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

F. E. Goodwin, Proc. IEEE 58, 1746 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

H. L. Richard, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 55 (1981).

V. W. S. Chan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 10 (1981).

S. Dolinar, V. Vilnrotter, R. Gagliardi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 18 (1981).

R. W. Svorec, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 295, 66 (1981).

T. N. Rodgers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 150, 108 (1978).

E. Bourkoff, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269, 25 (1981).

Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif.

L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, in Proceedings, Technical Program, E/O Laser Conference, Anaheim, Calif. (1979), p. 166;see also L. B. Stotts, R. T. Kihm, R. L. Mather, M. E. Hyde, G. C. Mooradian, NOSC Technical Report 174 (TR174), Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. (1977).

Other

A. K. Majumdar, G. Fortescue, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982). paper THW5.

R. T. Menzies, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena; private communication (1983).

W. K. Pratt, Laser Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1969).

The values are for some typical situations. See, for example, Ref. 14 and H. S. Stewart, R. F. Hopfield, in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 1, R. Kingslake Ed. (Academic, New York, 1965).

R. M. Langer, “Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapour on near Infrared Transmission at Sea Level,” Report on Signal Corps contract DA-36-039-SC-723351, J. R. M. Bege Co., Arlington, Mass. (May1957) (as in Ref. 14).

A. Title, Lockheed Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif.; private communication (1982);see also Opt. Eng. 20, 815 (1981).

W. L. Wolfe, Ed., Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1965), Chap. 5.

R. B. Battele, P. R. Gillette, R. C. Honey, “An Analysis of the Feasibility of Laser Systems for Naval Applications (u),” Defense Doc. Center Rep. ASTIA Doc. AD-350353 (Nov.1963) [as referenced in N. S. Kopeika, J. Bodogna, Proc. IEEE 58, 1571 (1970)].
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976);V. E. Zuev's paper in the same book.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aerial wide-beam optical communication scenario between two aircraft.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized background power as a function of the receiver FOV for LED (λ = 0.935-μm) and diode laser (λ = 0.875-μm) sources for a typical daytime value of N (λ) = 10 W/m2 sr · μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Four-emitter IR transmitter to provide ∼24° beam coverage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Continuous-wave laser transmitter with laser diode and modulator circuits. (The cylindrical lens in front of the laser is not visible.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulsed diode laser transmitter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lens vs detector geometry for multichannel receiver.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nine-channel receiver with detectors and circuit board of preamplifiers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation experiment for optical communication systems.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Bit error rate vs SNR for simulation experiment.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Typical data modulation going in (upper trace) and out (lower trace) of the optical link with a small amount of signal attenuation. (b) Data transferred with sufficient attenuation (SNR = 2/1) to cause occasional errors (less than ∼1%).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical daytime background data under two different atmospheric conditions.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Two-way communication link set up for teletype message.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Specific Link Analysis Summary

Tables Icon

Table II Typical Daytime Background/Sky Data a

Tables Icon

Table III Receiver Performance at 900-m range

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P s = P t ( D 0 / θ T R ) 2 τ t τ r τ atm ,
SNR ( η / 2 h ν B ) P S 2 / [ P B + ( h ν / η q ) I D ] ,
P B = π τ a τ r Δ λ θ R 2 A R N ( λ ) / 4 ,
λ θ = λ N ( n 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 / 2 / n ,

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