Abstract

A systematic and detailed study of launching light from semiconductor lasers into plane-ended multimode optical fibers has been carried out—we believe for the first time. Three different semiconductor lasers and four multimode fibers having numerical apertures in the 0.16–0.40 range were used. Simple theoretical models developed for the launching efficiency η give good agreement with experimental results. We show how erroneous results can be obtained when considering only the stimulated emission of the lasers in calculating η. The dependence of η on axial, lateral, and angular misalignments is also investigated and explained qualitatively with ray optics.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. R. D. Sunak, M. A. Zampronio, in Proceedings, Lasers '81 Conference, New Orleans, 14–18 Dec. 1981, pp 126–133.
  2. M. A. Zampronio, M.Sc. Thesis, Unicamp (Aug.1981).
  3. L. G. Cohen, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 573 (1972).
  4. D. Schickentanz, J. Schubert, Opt. Commun. 5, 291 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 301 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Maeda et al., Appl. Opt. 16, 1966 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. W. Benson, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, Appl. Opt. 14, 2815 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1976

E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 301 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

1972

L. G. Cohen, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 573 (1972).

D. Schickentanz, J. Schubert, Opt. Commun. 5, 291 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Benson, W. W.

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 573 (1972).

Maeda, M.

Pinnow, D. A.

Rich, T. C.

Schickentanz, D.

D. Schickentanz, J. Schubert, Opt. Commun. 5, 291 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

D. Schickentanz, J. Schubert, Opt. Commun. 5, 291 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sunak, H. R. D.

H. R. D. Sunak, M. A. Zampronio, in Proceedings, Lasers '81 Conference, New Orleans, 14–18 Dec. 1981, pp 126–133.

Weidel, E.

E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 301 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zampronio, M. A.

H. R. D. Sunak, M. A. Zampronio, in Proceedings, Lasers '81 Conference, New Orleans, 14–18 Dec. 1981, pp 126–133.

M. A. Zampronio, M.Sc. Thesis, Unicamp (Aug.1981).

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

L. G. Cohen, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 573 (1972).

Opt. Commun.

D. Schickentanz, J. Schubert, Opt. Commun. 5, 291 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 301 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. R. D. Sunak, M. A. Zampronio, in Proceedings, Lasers '81 Conference, New Orleans, 14–18 Dec. 1981, pp 126–133.

M. A. Zampronio, M.Sc. Thesis, Unicamp (Aug.1981).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Far-field intensity distributions I of the light emitted by laser L3 and a fitted Gaussian distribution II (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the laser stripe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Launching efficiency vs maximum semiangle of acceptance in air. The curves were predictions of the theoretical model for the lasers L1, L2, and L3, and the points were obtained experimentally with five different microscope objectives.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Launching efficiency vs fiber semiacceptance angle in air, in degrees, showing theoretical curves and experimental points, which were obtained with the plane-ended fibers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Graphs of the power in milliwatts vs current in milliamperes (a) from the laser L3 and (b) from the fiber output end with butt-coupling L3 → F4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the angular intensity distribution of light at the output of fiber F1 and the far-field intensity distribution of laser L1 accepted by the fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power from the ends of three fibers normalized to power from fiber F3 vs axial misalignment z in microns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representation of the maximum ray accepted by the fiber to calculate the distance h over which the fiber output power remains constant with lateral misalignment.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Graphs of the normalized power from the output of fibers F1 (—), F3 (---), and F4 (-⋅-⋅-⋅-) vs normalized misalignment (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the laser stripe.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Representation of the maximum angle accepted by the fiber. In (a) the fiber and laser axes are aligned, but in (b) an angular misalignment α exists. See text for explanation of the light rays in regions A and B.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Representation of the changes in the ray intensity accepted by the fiber with angular misalignment α. Rays in region A are accepted, while those in region B are lost through refraction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized output power from three fibers vs angular misalignment α in degrees.

Tables (3)

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Table I Characteristics of the Multimode Fibers used in the Experiments

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Table II Characteristics of the Semiconductor Lasers used in the Experiments

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Table III Axial Misalignments for Constant Fiber Output Power

Equations (5)

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I = I 0 exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) ,
η = 0 θ a exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ 0 π / 2 exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ 0 θ a exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ 0 π / 2 exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ .
0 π / 2 exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ = 0 exp ( 2 θ 2 / θ 0 2 ) d θ ,
η = erf ( 2 θ a θ 0 ) erf ( 2 θ a θ 0 ) .
erf ( 2 θ a θ 0 ) = 1 ,

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