Abstract

NOAA's Wave Propagation Laboratory operated a plume-tracking lidar during two field experiments investigating atmospheric dispersion in complex terrain. The lidar successfully acquired data on oil fog plume behavior by detecting the elastic backscatter of the pulsed output of a frequency-doubled ruby laser. This UV wavelength (0.3472 μm) met stringent eye safety restrictions. An analysis of signal and noise levels demonstrates that plume definition at a wavelength of 0.3472 μm is superior in many cases to that at 0.6943 μm when pulse energies are low enough to be eye-safe at the range to the plume. This is often true in spite of the high threshold set by the large molecular scatter from the ambient air at the UV wavelength. Backscatter coefficients of oil fog at the shorter wavelength were 1–4× larger than at the longer wavelength.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.
  2. M. H. Dickerson, “An Overview, Current Status, and Future Plans for the DOE Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program,” in Preprints, Second Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Steamboat Springs, Colo., 9–12 Nov. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston1981), pp. 10–13.
  3. G. C. Holzworth, “The EPA Program for Dispersion Model Development for Sources in Complex Terrain,” in Conference Papers, Second Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, 24–27 Mar. 1980 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1980), pp. 465–468.
  4. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1980 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1980).
  5. In spite of the manufacturer's prior assurances to the contrary, the attenuating colored glass filter, Schott BG25, suffered optical damage with use at the laser output resulting in diminished UV transmission but no change in red transmission. A better red-blocking filter should be found for future experiments.
  6. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, N. L.

W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Derr, V. E.

W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.

Dickerson, M. H.

M. H. Dickerson, “An Overview, Current Status, and Future Plans for the DOE Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program,” in Preprints, Second Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Steamboat Springs, Colo., 9–12 Nov. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston1981), pp. 10–13.

Eberhard, W. L.

W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Holzworth, G. C.

G. C. Holzworth, “The EPA Program for Dispersion Model Development for Sources in Complex Terrain,” in Conference Papers, Second Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, 24–27 Mar. 1980 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1980), pp. 465–468.

McNice, G. T.

W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. L. Eberhard, V. E. Derr, G. T. McNice, N. L. Abshire, “Lidar Observations of Plume Behavior in Complex Terrain,” in Extended Abstracts, Fifth Symposium on Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Pollution, Atlanta, 9–13 Mar. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1981), pp. 224–225.

M. H. Dickerson, “An Overview, Current Status, and Future Plans for the DOE Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) Program,” in Preprints, Second Conference on Mountain Meteorology, Steamboat Springs, Colo., 9–12 Nov. 1981 (American Meteorological Society, Boston1981), pp. 10–13.

G. C. Holzworth, “The EPA Program for Dispersion Model Development for Sources in Complex Terrain,” in Conference Papers, Second Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, 24–27 Mar. 1980 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1980), pp. 465–468.

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1980 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1980).

In spite of the manufacturer's prior assurances to the contrary, the attenuating colored glass filter, Schott BG25, suffered optical damage with use at the laser output resulting in diminished UV transmission but no change in red transmission. A better red-blocking filter should be found for future experiments.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

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Tables (3)

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Table I Typical Operating Parameters of WPL Dual-Wavelength Ruby Lidar

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Table II Values of F(UV)/F(red) for Various Plume Backscatter Coefficients

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Table III UV Pulse Energy for F Equal to that of Eye-Safe Red Pulse

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = ( N p + N a + N b N p 2 + N a + N b N p 2 ) 1 / 2 = N p ( N p + 2 N a + 2 N b ) 1 / 2 ,
N p , a = E λ η τ 2 h β p , a A R 2 T 0 T a 2 T p 2 ,
T p , a = exp ( 0 R σ p , a d R ) .

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