Abstract

Experimental observations of highly absorbing spherical carbon particles trapped in the beam of a Nd: YAG laser are presented. The physical mechanism believed responsible is discussed along with possible application and implications of this phenomenon.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 19, 660 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).
  4. F. Ehrenhaft, J. Franklin Inst. 233, 235 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Pluchino, Appl. Opt. 22, 103 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. B. Derjaguin, Yu. I. Yalamov, in International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3, G. M. Hidy, J. R. Brock, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1972).
  9. E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Richards, E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Boivin, E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. B 138, 1561 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Boivin, J. Dow, E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1171 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. I. Carswell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 647 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1976 (1)

Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

1965 (2)

A. Boivin, E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. B 138, 1561 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 647 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

F. Ehrenhaft, J. Franklin Inst. 233, 235 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Boivin, A.

Carswell, A. I.

A. I. Carswell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 647 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Derjaguin, V. B.

V. B. Derjaguin, Yu. I. Yalamov, in International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3, G. M. Hidy, J. R. Brock, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1972).

Dow, J.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Ehrenhaft, F.

F. Ehrenhaft, J. Franklin Inst. 233, 235 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Kutukov, V. B.

Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lewittes, M.

M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oster, G.

M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pluchino, A. B.

Preining, O.

O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).

Richards, B.

B. Richards, E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, E. R.

Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

A. Boivin, J. Dow, E. Wolf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1171 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. Boivin, E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. B 138, 1561 (1965).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yalamov, Yu. I.

Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Derjaguin, Yu. I. Yalamov, in International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3, G. M. Hidy, J. R. Brock, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1972).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Lewittes, S. Arnold, G. Oster, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

Yu. I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, E. R. Shchukin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 57, 564 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

F. Ehrenhaft, J. Franklin Inst. 233, 235 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Boivin, E. Wolf, Phys. Rev. B 138, 1561 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Carswell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 647 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

B. Richards, E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

O. Preining, in Aerosol Science, C. W. Davies, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).

V. B. Derjaguin, Yu. I. Yalamov, in International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 3, G. M. Hidy, J. R. Brock, Eds. (Pergamon, London, 1972).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of experimental apparatus used to trap and observe absorbing carbon microspheres.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron microscope photograph of spherical carbon particles used in the experiment. The radii range from 0.75 to 4.0 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single carbon particle trapped near the focal plane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two carbon particles trapped near the focal plane. The separation between particles is ~0.5 mm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Six carbon particles trapped above the focal plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated photophoretic force for a spherical carbon particle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional plot of time-averaged electromagnetic energy density near the focal plane for a slice through the center of the laser beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Direction of Poynting vector near the focus. Arrows represent tangent to energy flow line passing through each point.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Blowup of x = 8.45–11.15-μm, z = 1080–1140-μm region: (a) direction of Poynting vector and contours (solid lines) of constant electric energy density; (b) 3-D plot of electric energy density.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic representation of mechanism responsible for trapping a particle.

Equations (1)

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F = - 4 π R η 2 K I J ρ T χ ,

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