Abstract

The possibility of retrieving size distribution of aerosol particles in the stratosphere by measuring the extinction of solar radiation traversing the aerosol medium at two different wavelengths is explored in this work. This paper presents a parametric study of the effects of size distribution and composition of stratospheric on the value R, the ratio of extinction of solar radiation at wavelength 0.45 μm to the extinction at aerosols wavelength 1.0 μm. The aerosol size distributions under study are nine analytical expressions including most stratospheric aerosol models used by investigators. The aerosol compositions under study are the supercooled sulfuric-acid droplets, with different weight percentages of H2SO4 in the aerosol. It is found that R is not very sensitive to either the composition or the radii limits of stratospheric aerosols under consideration but is quite sensitive to the value of the variable parameter governing the mode radius of the size distribution of aerosol particles. Based on the results of this parametric study, a method of retrieving the size distribution of aerosol particles in the stratosphere from the experimental results of the extinction of solar radiation at two wavelengths is proposed.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 168 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Woods, R. L. Chuan, “Aerosol Characterization with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor” in Proceedings of Advances in Particulate Sampling and Measurements” W. B. Smith, Ed. EPA-600-9P-80-004 (1979).
  6. B. W. Gandrud, A. L. Lazrus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Grams, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 13 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt 18, 1376 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Opt. 18, 1404 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Balloon-Borne Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol and Condensation Nuclei During the Year Following the Mount St. Helens Eruption,” U. Wyoming, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Report AP-63, July1981.
  14. A. Deepak, G. P. Box, “Representation of Aerosol Size Distribution Data by Analytic Models,” in Atmospheric Aerosols, Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, Ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).
  15. R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 14, 208 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  19. R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longmans, London, 1964), p. 423.
  20. A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, “Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Contract. Rep. 3638 (1982).

1982 (1)

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Gandrud, A. L. Lazrus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (4)

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Opt. 18, 1404 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (4)

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Box, G. P.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, “Representation of Aerosol Size Distribution Data by Analytic Models,” in Atmospheric Aerosols, Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, Ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

Box, M. A.

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, W. P.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Opt. 18, 1404 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chuan, R. L.

D. C. Woods, R. L. Chuan, “Aerosol Characterization with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor” in Proceedings of Advances in Particulate Sampling and Measurements” W. B. Smith, Ed. EPA-600-9P-80-004 (1979).

Deepak, A.

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, “Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Contract. Rep. 3638 (1982).

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, “Representation of Aerosol Size Distribution Data by Analytic Models,” in Atmospheric Aerosols, Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, Ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

Farlow, N. H.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fiocco, G.

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Forlizzi, W.

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, W. H.

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gandrud, B. W.

B. W. Gandrud, A. L. Lazrus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G.

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

G. W. Grams, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, D. M.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Balloon-Borne Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol and Condensation Nuclei During the Year Following the Mount St. Helens Eruption,” U. Wyoming, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Report AP-63, July1981.

Kent, G. S.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, “Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Contract. Rep. 3638 (1982).

Kiang, C. S.

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lazrus, A. L.

B. W. Gandrud, A. L. Lazrus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lem, H. Y.

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Longhurst, R. S.

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longmans, London, 1964), p. 423.

McCormick, M. P.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Opt. 18, 1404 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McMaster, L. R.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, A.

A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Pepin, T. J.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petroncelli, P.

A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Balloon-Borne Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol and Condensation Nuclei During the Year Following the Mount St. Helens Eruption,” U. Wyoming, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Report AP-63, July1981.

Russell, R. B.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, R. C.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

Woods, D. C.

D. C. Woods, R. L. Chuan, “Aerosol Characterization with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor” in Proceedings of Advances in Particulate Sampling and Measurements” W. B. Smith, Ed. EPA-600-9P-80-004 (1979).

Yue, G. K.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, “Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Contract. Rep. 3638 (1982).

Appl. Opt (1)

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

B. W. Gandrud, A. L. Lazrus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 21 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (4)

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 168 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, W. P. Chu, W. H. Fuller, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 1296 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Russell, T. J. Swissler, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Livingston, T. J. Pepin, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1279 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamill, O. B. Toon, C. S. Kiang, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1104 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (2)

G. Fiocco, A. Mugnai, W. Forlizzi, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 40, 949 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Mugnai, P. Petroncelli, G. Fiocco, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 41, 351 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

N. H. Farlow, G. V. Ferry, H. Y. Lem, D. M. Hayes, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 733 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 783 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20, 233 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longmans, London, 1964), p. 423.

A. Deepak, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, “Atmospheric Backscatter Model Development for CO2 Wavelengths,” NASA Contract. Rep. 3638 (1982).

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “Balloon-Borne Observations of Stratospheric Aerosol and Condensation Nuclei During the Year Following the Mount St. Helens Eruption,” U. Wyoming, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Report AP-63, July1981.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, “Representation of Aerosol Size Distribution Data by Analytic Models,” in Atmospheric Aerosols, Their Formation, Optical Properties, and Effects, A. Deepak, Ed. (Spectrum, Hampton, Va., 1982).

D. C. Woods, R. L. Chuan, “Aerosol Characterization with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor” in Proceedings of Advances in Particulate Sampling and Measurements” W. B. Smith, Ed. EPA-600-9P-80-004 (1979).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of aerosol extinction coefficient at λ = 0.45 μm to aerosol extinction coefficient at λ = 1.0 μm as a function of the variable parameter in the aerosol size distribution n(r) for different aerosol compositions. Solid curves are results obtained with r1 = 0.1 μm, r2 = 1.0 μm. in Eq. (1). Dotted curves are results obtained with r1 = 0.01 μm, r2 = 1.0 μm. Dashed curves are results obtained with r1 = 0.1 μm, r2 = 3.0 μm. ○ are results obtained from aerosols of 50% H2SO4, □ are results obtained from aerosols of 75% H2SO4, and ◇ are results obtained from aerosols with 84.5% H2SO4. Curves with △ show extinction coefficients calculated with constant A = 1 as a function of the variable parameter. Figures (a)–(i) correspond to results obtained from analytical models 1–9 listed in Table I, respectively.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Size Distributions of Stratospheric Aerosols Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table II Refractive Indices of Aerosol Substances Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of the Expected Extinction Ratios R Calculated With and Without the Presence of Large Particles and Their Corresponding Mode Radii rg Determined By the Proposed Techniquea

Equations (1)

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R = σ 0.45 σ 1.0 = r 1 r 2 n ( r ) Q ( λ = 0.45 , x , m ) π r 2 d r r 1 r 2 n ( r ) Q ( λ = 1.0 , x , m ) π r 2 d r ,

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