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References

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  1. C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optics: a Short Course for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972), p. 139.
  2. J. D. McGrae, Optical Tooling in Industry (Heyden, New York, 1964), p. 39.
  3. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 441.
  4. T. Sawatari, A. C. Elek, Appl. Opt. 12, 881 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. H. Tanner, Appl. Opt. 13, 2026 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. L. McLaughlin, Appl. Opt. 18, 1042 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Francon, Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 25.

1979 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Becklund, O. A.

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optics: a Short Course for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972), p. 139.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 441.

Elek, A. C.

Francon, M.

M. Francon, Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 25.

McGrae, J. D.

J. D. McGrae, Optical Tooling in Industry (Heyden, New York, 1964), p. 39.

McLaughlin, J. L.

Sawatari, T.

Tanner, L. H.

Williams, C. S.

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optics: a Short Course for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972), p. 139.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 441.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Other (4)

C. S. Williams, O. A. Becklund, Optics: a Short Course for Engineers and Scientists (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1972), p. 139.

J. D. McGrae, Optical Tooling in Industry (Heyden, New York, 1964), p. 39.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1970), p. 441.

M. Francon, Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 25.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system used for focusing: 1, laser; 2) microscope objective; 3, pinhole; 4, objectives; 5, diffusor or reticle; 6, screen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system for aligning: 1, laser; 2, microscope objective; 3, pinhole; 4, objectives; 5, reticle; 6, screen; 7, mirror; 8, tangent bar; 9, micrometer drum.

Tables (2)

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Table I Focusing Errors in a 1× Imaging System (Fig. 1) Using Laser Speckle Produced by a Line on the Reticle

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Table II Alignment Data

Equations (2)

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= λ / u λ L / r ,
V s = l V d / Z ,

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