Abstract

A method is described whereby VUV photon detectors can be accurately calibrated. This method is illustrated by taking the 58.4-nm transition of He as an example. The technique consists of crossing a monoenergetic electron beam with a beam of He atoms. When inelastically scattered electrons which have excited the 21P state are detected in coincidence with the 58.4-nm photons emitted in the decay of the excited state, the interaction volume formed by the crossed beams constitutes a standard source of photons. By comparing the number of detected coincidences with the predicted number the calibration can be made. A total detector efficiency of 0.024 ± 0.003 is obtained for a Galileo 4830 channeltron.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. L. Weissler, S. K. Srivastava, Space Optics (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), p. 772.
  2. W. R. Ott, “NBS Ultraviolet Radiometric Standards,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Rep. NBS SP456 (1976), p. 107. See also the following additional publications by the NBS group: L. R. Canfield, R. G. Johnston, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 12, 1611 (1973); J. M. Bridges, W. R. Ott, Appl. Opt. 16, 367 (1970); R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, J. M. Bridges, Appl. Opt. 17, 593 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. Williams, Physics of Ionized Gases (U. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, 1976), p. 217.
  4. T. Sasaki, T. Oda, H. Sugawara, Appl. Opt. 16, 3115 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. T. Hollywood et al., J. Phys. B 12, 819 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. McAdams et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3691 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. McAdams, Ph.D. Thesis, Queens U. Belfast, Northern Ireland (unpublished, 1982).
  8. J. Macek, J. D. Jaecks, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2288 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Blum, H. Kleinpoppen, Phys. Rep. 52, 403 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Eminyan et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1519 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Slevin et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3009 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. C. Steph, D. E. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1848 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Crowe, J. C. Nogueira, J. Phys. B 15, L501 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. B. van Linden van den Heuwell et al., J. Phys. B 14, 2667 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. D. Thomas et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1719 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Crowe, J. C. Nogueira, J. Phys. B 15, L501 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. B. van Linden van den Heuwell et al., J. Phys. B 14, 2667 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

J. Slevin et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3009 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Steph, D. E. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1848 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. McAdams et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3691 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

K. Blum, H. Kleinpoppen, Phys. Rep. 52, 403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hollywood et al., J. Phys. B 12, 819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1974 (2)

M. Eminyan et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1519 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Thomas et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1719 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. Macek, J. D. Jaecks, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2288 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Blum, K.

K. Blum, H. Kleinpoppen, Phys. Rep. 52, 403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, A.

A. Crowe, J. C. Nogueira, J. Phys. B 15, L501 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eminyan, M.

M. Eminyan et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1519 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Golden, D. E.

N. C. Steph, D. E. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1848 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hollywood, M. T.

M. T. Hollywood et al., J. Phys. B 12, 819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jaecks, J. D.

J. Macek, J. D. Jaecks, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2288 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kleinpoppen, H.

K. Blum, H. Kleinpoppen, Phys. Rep. 52, 403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Macek, J.

J. Macek, J. D. Jaecks, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2288 (1971).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, R.

R. McAdams et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3691 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. McAdams, Ph.D. Thesis, Queens U. Belfast, Northern Ireland (unpublished, 1982).

Nogueira, J. C.

A. Crowe, J. C. Nogueira, J. Phys. B 15, L501 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oda, T.

Ott, W. R.

W. R. Ott, “NBS Ultraviolet Radiometric Standards,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Rep. NBS SP456 (1976), p. 107. See also the following additional publications by the NBS group: L. R. Canfield, R. G. Johnston, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 12, 1611 (1973); J. M. Bridges, W. R. Ott, Appl. Opt. 16, 367 (1970); R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, J. M. Bridges, Appl. Opt. 17, 593 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

Slevin, J.

J. Slevin et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3009 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S. K.

G. L. Weissler, S. K. Srivastava, Space Optics (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), p. 772.

Steph, N. C.

N. C. Steph, D. E. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1848 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, H.

Thomas, L. D.

L. D. Thomas et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1719 (1974).
[CrossRef]

van Linden van den Heuwell, H. B.

H. B. van Linden van den Heuwell et al., J. Phys. B 14, 2667 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weissler, G. L.

G. L. Weissler, S. K. Srivastava, Space Optics (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), p. 772.

Williams, J. F.

J. F. Williams, Physics of Ionized Gases (U. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, 1976), p. 217.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. B (7)

M. Eminyan et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1519 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Slevin et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3009 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hollywood et al., J. Phys. B 12, 819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. McAdams et al., J. Phys. B 13, 3691 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Crowe, J. C. Nogueira, J. Phys. B 15, L501 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. B. van Linden van den Heuwell et al., J. Phys. B 14, 2667 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Thomas et al., J. Phys. B 7, 1719 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

K. Blum, H. Kleinpoppen, Phys. Rep. 52, 403 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Macek, J. D. Jaecks, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2288 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Steph, D. E. Golden, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1848 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. McAdams, Ph.D. Thesis, Queens U. Belfast, Northern Ireland (unpublished, 1982).

G. L. Weissler, S. K. Srivastava, Space Optics (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), p. 772.

W. R. Ott, “NBS Ultraviolet Radiometric Standards,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Rep. NBS SP456 (1976), p. 107. See also the following additional publications by the NBS group: L. R. Canfield, R. G. Johnston, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 12, 1611 (1973); J. M. Bridges, W. R. Ott, Appl. Opt. 16, 367 (1970); R. D. Saunders, W. R. Ott, J. M. Bridges, Appl. Opt. 17, 593 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Williams, Physics of Ionized Gases (U. Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, 1976), p. 217.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the electron–photon coincidence apparatus and circuitry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

He(21P) time spectrum obtained at an incident energy of 81.2 eV, a scattering angle of θe = 20°, and photon detector coordinates θγ = 120°, ϕγ = 180°.

Equations (13)

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N ˙ e = I J e ( σ + σ ) Ω e ɛ e + δ ˙ e ,
J e = l e n ( Z ) d Z ,
N ˙ c = I σ Ω e ɛ e Ω γ ɛ γ J c P c ,
J c = l c n ( Z ) d Z ,
N c N e = Ω γ ɛ γ ( 1 + σ / σ ) · P c .
N c N e = Ω γ ɛ γ P c .
P c = 3 8 π [ λ sin 2 θ + ( 1 - λ 2 ) ( cos 2 θ + 1 ) - ( 1 - λ 2 ) sin 2 θ cos 2 θ + λ ( 1 - λ ) cos χ sin 2 θ cos ϕ ] ,
λ = a 0 2 a 0 2 + 2 a 1 2 = σ 0 σ , χ = arg a 1 / a 0 ,
R = R / ( 1 + R τ ) ,
Ω γ P c d Ω γ = η P c + 1 4 π ( 1 - η ) ,
K = 3 8 π Ω γ ɛ γ ( 1 + σ / σ )
R = exp [ - ln 8 ( Δ E S Δ E T ) 2 ] ,
σ / σ = i R i σ i / σ ,

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