Abstract

A scanning optical microscope is particularly well suited for image digitization since the image is already in the form of an electronic signal. A mechanically scanned optical microscope is described, which is controlled by a microcomputer and the image displayed on a framestore. The results of several simple digital image-processing algorithms applied to the micrographs are presented.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. H. Bartels et al., Anal. Quant. Cytology J. 3, 55 (1981).
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 26, 166 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopy,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980).
  4. D. K. Hamilton et al., Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. L. Hall, Computer Image Processing and Recognition (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 159–185.
  6. W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley-Interscience, NewYork, 1978), pp. 478–487.

1981 (2)

P. H. Bartels et al., Anal. Quant. Cytology J. 3, 55 (1981).

D. K. Hamilton et al., Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 26, 166 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, P. H.

P. H. Bartels et al., Anal. Quant. Cytology J. 3, 55 (1981).

Hall, E. L.

E. L. Hall, Computer Image Processing and Recognition (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 159–185.

Hamilton, D. K.

Pratt, W. K.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley-Interscience, NewYork, 1978), pp. 478–487.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 26, 166 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopy,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Anal. Quant. Cytology J. (1)

P. H. Bartels et al., Anal. Quant. Cytology J. 3, 55 (1981).

Electron. Power (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 26, 166 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

E. L. Hall, Computer Image Processing and Recognition (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 159–185.

W. K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing (Wiley-Interscience, NewYork, 1978), pp. 478–487.

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopy,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the digital image-processing hardware.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram illustrating the general principle of contrast stretching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Conventional (type 1) image of an integrated circuit. Each division represents 3.5 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contrast-stretched version of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Grey-level histogram of an integrated circuit shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram-equalized image of an integrated circuit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Autofocused confocal image of the integrated circuit.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diagram of an edge illustrating the relationship between resolution, acutance, and contrast.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Edge-enhanced version of the autofocused image of Fig. 8 using filter h1(x,y).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Edge-enhanced version of the autofocused image of Fig. 8 using filter h2(x,y).

Equations (1)

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h 1 ( x , y ) = 1 8 | - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 16 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 | , h 2 ( x , y ) = 1 8 | - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 10 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 | ,

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