Abstract

Measurements of the radiance and polarization of the skylight at South Pole Station, Antarctica, were made for clear cloud-free skies and cloudless skies with ice crystal precipitation. The measurements were made at six narrowband wavelengths from 321 to 872 nm in the principal plane. The data show that scattering by ice crystals increases the radiance in the backscatter plane, decreases it in the solar plane, and shifts the radiance minimum to a point closer to the sun. The crystals decrease the maximum value of linear polarization and shift the position of the maximum away from the sun. The influence of ice crystal scattering is greatest at the longer wavelengths.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. F. Coleman, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1260 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 524 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Jacobowitz, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 691 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Wendling, R. Wendling, H. K. Weickmann, Appl. Opt. 18, 2663 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Sassen, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 8 (4), 172 (1978).
  7. J. N. Lax, W. Schwerdtfeger, Antarct. J. U.S. 11 (3), 144 (1976).
  8. B. W. Fitch, K. L. Coulson, R. H. Hamilton, Contrib. Atmos. Sci. 15, U. California, Davis (1978).
  9. J. V. Dave, R. M. Warten, IBM Sci. Rep. 320-3248 (Dec.1968).

1981 (1)

R. F. Coleman, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1260 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 8 (4), 172 (1978).

1976 (1)

J. N. Lax, W. Schwerdtfeger, Antarct. J. U.S. 11 (3), 144 (1976).

1972 (1)

K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 524 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Jacobowitz, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 691 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, R. F.

R. F. Coleman, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1260 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

B. W. Fitch, K. L. Coulson, R. H. Hamilton, Contrib. Atmos. Sci. 15, U. California, Davis (1978).

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, R. M. Warten, IBM Sci. Rep. 320-3248 (Dec.1968).

Fitch, B. W.

B. W. Fitch, K. L. Coulson, R. H. Hamilton, Contrib. Atmos. Sci. 15, U. California, Davis (1978).

Hamilton, R. H.

B. W. Fitch, K. L. Coulson, R. H. Hamilton, Contrib. Atmos. Sci. 15, U. California, Davis (1978).

Jacobowitz, H.

H. Jacobowitz, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 691 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lax, J. N.

J. N. Lax, W. Schwerdtfeger, Antarct. J. U.S. 11 (3), 144 (1976).

Liou, K.-N.

R. F. Coleman, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1260 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 524 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, T.

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 8 (4), 172 (1978).

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schwerdtfeger, W.

J. N. Lax, W. Schwerdtfeger, Antarct. J. U.S. 11 (3), 144 (1976).

Warten, R. M.

J. V. Dave, R. M. Warten, IBM Sci. Rep. 320-3248 (Dec.1968).

Weickmann, H. K.

Wendling, P.

Wendling, R.

Antarct. J. U.S. (2)

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 8 (4), 172 (1978).

J. N. Lax, W. Schwerdtfeger, Antarct. J. U.S. 11 (3), 144 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Atmos. Sci. (3)

K. Sassen, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Coleman, K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 1260 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K.-N. Liou, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 524 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

H. Jacobowitz, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 11, 691 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. W. Fitch, K. L. Coulson, R. H. Hamilton, Contrib. Atmos. Sci. 15, U. California, Davis (1978).

J. V. Dave, R. M. Warten, IBM Sci. Rep. 320-3248 (Dec.1968).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative radiance of skylight in the principal plane at various wavelengths measured for a clear sky and a cloudless sky with ice crystal precipitation at the South Pole, 22 and 23 Feb., respectively. The radiance of skylight computed for a Rayleigh atmosphere overlying a Lambert surface with an albedo of 0.9 is shown for comparison. The position of the sun for the measured and calculated data curves is shown by the arrow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Degree of polarization of skylight in the principal plane at two wavelengths measured for a clear sky, 22 Feb., and computed for a Rayleigh atmosphere with surface albedo 0.9. The position of the sun for the measured and calculated data curves is shown by the arrow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Degree of polarization of skylight in the principal plane at λ = 700 nm measured under clear skies with and without ice crystal precipitation. The position of the sun for both days is shown by the arrow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degree of polarization of skylight in the principal plane at λ = 872 nm measured 22 and 23 Feb., clear sky and cloudless sky with ice crystal precipitation days, respectively. The position of the sun is for both days as indicated by the arrow.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Degree of polarization of skylight in the principal plane at λ = 872 ran measured 21 and 18 Mar., clear sky and cloudless sky with ice crystal precipitation days, respectively. The position of the sun for both days is indicated by the arrow.

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