Abstract

The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08–1.5-mg/m3 range the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30–40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of ~10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography From Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, R. C. Wrigley, “Atmospheric Correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 457–483.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, Appl. Opt. 18, 3587 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, Appl. Opt. 19, 1338 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Bio-optical Research in the Southern California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 20, 207 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).
  17. T. Platt, K. L. Denman, A. D. Jassby, “Modeling the Productivity of Phytoplankton,” in The Sea, Vol. 6, E. D. Goldberg, I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele (Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 21.
  18. D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).
  20. O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).
  21. R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.
  22. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, Appl. Opt. 14, 413 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Morel, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).
  28. A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 343 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W. J. Wiscombe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 637 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  31. G. W. Kattawar, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 839 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

1982

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

1981

1980

H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, Appl. Opt. 19, 1338 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

1977

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

W. J. Wiscombe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

1973

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).

1970

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

1963

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

1954

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arvesen, J. C.

J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchings, F. E.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography From Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. K.

G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C.

de Leffe, A.

Deirmendjian, D.

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

Denman, K. L.

T. Platt, K. L. Denman, A. D. Jassby, “Modeling the Productivity of Phytoplankton,” in The Sea, Vol. 6, E. D. Goldberg, I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele (Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 21.

Deschamps, P. Y.

El Sayed, S. Y.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

Ewing, G. C.

G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 20, 207 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Appl. Opt. 19, 3428 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, W. R. McCluney, Appl. Opt. 14, 413 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, R. C. Wrigley, “Atmospheric Correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 457–483.
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Holmes, R. W.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Holm-Hansen, O. G.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, M. M.

Jassby, A. D.

T. Platt, K. L. Denman, A. D. Jassby, “Modeling the Productivity of Phytoplankton,” in The Sea, Vol. 6, E. D. Goldberg, I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele (Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 21.

Kaestner, M.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 839 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, C. J.

G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

McCluney, W. R.

Menzel, D. W.

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Millard, J. P.

J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, R. C. Wrigley, “Atmospheric Correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 457–483.
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Platt, T.

T. Platt, K. L. Denman, A. D. Jassby, “Modeling the Productivity of Phytoplankton,” in The Sea, Vol. 6, E. D. Goldberg, I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele (Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 21.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Bio-optical Research in the Southern California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

Strickland, J. D. H.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Strong, A. E.

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanre, D.

Weaver, E. C.

J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Bio-optical Research in the Southern California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, R. C. Wrigley, “Atmospheric Correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 457–483.
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Appl. Opt.

Astronaut. Acta

J. C. Arvesen, J. P. Millard, E. C. Weaver, Astronaut. Acta 18, 229 (1973).

Boundary Layer Meteorol.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 343 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res.

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

J. Mar. Res.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. Mar. Res. 40, 491 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

W. J. Wiscombe, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 637 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 839 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. K. Clarke, G. C. Ewing, C. J. Lorenzen, Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Phys.

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Platt, K. L. Denman, A. D. Jassby, “Modeling the Productivity of Phytoplankton,” in The Sea, Vol. 6, E. D. Goldberg, I. N. McCave, J. J. O’Brien, J. H. Steele (Interscience, New York, 1975), Chap. 21.

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography From Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, R. C. Wrigley, “Atmospheric Correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheres and Oceans, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 457–483.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 317–344.

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Bio-optical Research in the Southern California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

D. Deirmendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (Elsevier, New York, 1969).

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Figures (26)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ship stations at which data were acquired for the bio-optical algorithms. Circled stations are believed to be Case I.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

C(13) regression using the data acquired at all stations shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

C(13) regression using only the data acquired from the Case I (circled) stations shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

C(23) regression using the data acquired at all stations shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

C(23) regression using only the data from the stations in Fig. 1 for which 〈C〉 was in the 1.5–21.3-mg/m3 range.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ship track and station locations of the RV Athena II.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Station locations and portions of the RV Athena II’s track, which are studied in this paper, overlaid on a CZCS image of the pigment concentration from Orbit 3226 (14 June 1979).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image of Lt(443) from Orbit 3171.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of Lw(443) [i.e., Lt(443) after atmospheric correction] from Orbit 3171.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image of Lt(550) from Orbit 3171.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Image of Lw(553) [i.e., Lt(550) after atmospheric correction] from Orbit 3171.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pigment concentration derived for Orbit 3171. The ship track of the RV Athena II is shown in white. The location of station 5 (Fig. 6) is indicated by the left cross on the shiptrack near 41°N and 70°W. [For a color-encoded presentation of this derived pigment see Plate (b) on the cover of this issue.]

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison between the ship-measured (solid line) and CZCS-estimated (dashed line) pigment concentration for Orbit 3171 (Fig. 12). Station 5 is located near 232 km on the distance scale.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Pigment concentration derived for Orbit 3157. The ship track of the RV Athena is shown in white. The location of station 4 (Fig. 6) is indicated by the cross on the shiptrack near 38.5°N and 68.3°W. [For a color-encoded presentation of this derived pigment, see Plate (a) on the cover of this issue.]

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison between the ship-measured (solid line) and CZCS-estimated (dashed line) pigment concentration for Orbit 3157 (Fig. 14). Station 4 is located near 245 km on the distance scale.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Pigment concentration derived for Orbit 3240. The ship track of the RV Athena II is shown in white. The location of station 8 (Fig. 6) is indicated by the cross on the ship track near 39.6°N and 71.2°W. [For a color-encoded presentation of this derived pigment see Plate (c) on the cover of this issue.]

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Comparison between the ship-measured (solid line) and CZCS-estimated (dashed line) pigment concentration for Orbit 3240 (Fig. 16). Station 8 is located near 203 km on the distance scale.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Comparison between the ship-measured (solid line) and CZCS-estimated (dashed line) pigment concentration for Orbit 3351 in the western Sargasso Sea. Station 11 is located near 300 km on the distance scale.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Comparison between ship- and CZCS-measured C along the four track lines in Figs. 13, 15, 17, and 18. The data from Orbit 3171 (circles) which fall far from the line of equality are from those portions of the track which are either near clouds or in the haze layer (Figs. 811).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Dependence of Lw(670), expressed in Gain 1 digital counts, on the pigment concentration.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Dependence of the pigment concentration retrieval on the choice of the clear water calibration area for Orbit 3240.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Retrieval of the pigment concentration for Orbit 3351 effected by treating each pixel as a clear water calibration area.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Multiple scattering error in the separability of It into Ia and Ir expressed as the percent error in the retrieved value of Ia.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Multiple-scattering effect on Ia at nadir as a function of τa.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Phase functions used in the preparation of Fig. 24.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Dependence of 21) on τa for given aerosol types.

Tables (10)

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Table I Exact Sensor Calibration

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Table II Sensor Calibration 5 % too High in Blue

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Table III Sensor Calibration (Gain 1) and F ¯ 0

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Table IV Revised Sensor Calibration (Gain 1) and F ¯ 0

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Table V Bio-optical Algorithm Summary

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Table VI Ship Track–Satellite Comparisons

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Table VII Ship Station–Satellite Comparison: Orbit 3157

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Table VIII Ship Station–Satellite Comparison: Orbit 3171

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Table IX Ship Station–Satellite Comparison: Orbit 3240

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Table X t(λ)Iw(λ) for Two Pigment Concentrations

Equations (19)

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L t ( λ ) = L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + t ( λ ) L w ( λ ) .
L x = ω x ( λ ) τ x ( λ ) F 0 ( λ ) p x ( Ө,Ө 0 , λ ) / 4 π ,
p x ( Ө,Ө 0 , λ ) = { P x ( Ө , λ ) + [ ρ ( Ө ) + ρ ( Ө 0 ) ] P x ( Ө + , λ ) } / cos Ө , cos Ө ± = ± cos Ө 0 cos Ө + sin Ө 0 sin Ө cos ( ϕ ϕ 0 ) ,
t ( λ ) = exp [ ( τ r / 2 + τ O z ) / cos Ө ] t a ( λ ) ,
L a ( λ 2 ) / L a ( λ 1 ) = ( λ 2 , λ 1 ) [ F 0 ( λ 2 ) / F 0 ( λ 1 ) ] ,
( λ 2 , λ 1 ) = ω a ( λ 2 ) τ a ( λ 2 ) p a ( Ө,Ө 0 , λ 2 ) ω a ( λ 1 ) τ a ( λ 1 ) p a ( Ө,Ө 0 , λ 1 ) .
t ( λ i ) L w ( λ i ) = L t ( λ i ) L r ( λ i ) S ( λ i , λ 4 ) [ L t ( λ 4 ) L r ( λ 4 ) t ( λ 4 ) L w ( λ 4 ) ]
S ( λ i , λ 4 ) = ( λ i , λ 4 ) F 0 ( λ i ) F 0 ( λ 4 ) .
f [ L w ( λ 1 ) , L w ( λ 3 ) , L w ( λ 4 ) ] = 0 ,
t ( λ 4 ) L w ( λ 4 ) = 0 ,
L w ( λ ) = [ L w ( λ ) ] N cos Ө 0 exp [ ( τ r / 2 + τ O z ) / cos Ө 0 ] ,
( λ i , λ 4 ) = ( λ i / λ 4 ) n ( λ i ) ,
n ( λ 1 ) = [ n ( λ 2 ) + n ( λ 3 ) ] / 2 .
K u ( λ ) = d { L n [ L u ( λ, z ) ] } d z
L u ( λ, 0 ) = L u ( λ, z ) exp [ + K u ( λ ) z ] .
C = 0 z 90 f ( z ) C ( z ) d z / 0 z 90 f ( z ) d z ,
f ( z ) = exp [ 2 0 z 90 K d ( z ) d z ] ,
log C ( i , j ) = log A ( i , j ) + B ( i , j ) log R ( i , j ) .
C = C 2 if C 2 < 1.5 , C = C 2 if C 2 > 1.5 but C 4 < 1.5 , C = C 2 if C 2 > 1.5 and C 4 > 1.5 ,

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