Abstract

A plane–parallel mesh Fabry-Perot resonant cavity has been used to determine the indices of refraction of a number of low-loss materials at 245.351 GHz using a C13H3F far-IR laser. The necessary apparatus is readily available in many far-IR laser laboratories and is readily extendable to other laser and millimeter-wave source frequencies. The values were compared to the measurements of other researchers at neighboring frequencies as available.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. J. Simonis, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 439 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 109, 820 (1962).
  3. J. E. Degenford, P. D. Coleman, Proc. IEEE 54, 520 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. L. Cullen, P. K. Yu, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 325, 493 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. A. Balanis, Microwave J. 39, March (1971).
  6. R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. G. Jones, Proc. IEEE 123, 285 (1976).
  8. R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Lecullier, G. Chanin, Infrared Phys. 16, 273 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. J. Simonis, R. D. Felock, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., (submitted Sept.1982).
  11. R. G. Jones, J. Phys. D 9, 819 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. E. Russell, E. E. Bell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 341 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. V. Meriakri, E. F. Ushatkin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 16, 498 (1973).
  15. T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. N. Afsar, K. J. Button, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2, 1029 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Black, D. Keune, H. Sievering, Appl. Opt. 7, 2319 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1056 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, in Proceedings, Conference on Microwave Measurement Techniques (IEE, London, 1961), p. 820.
  22. A. R. Von Hippel, Ed., Dielectric Materials and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1954).
  23. V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).
  24. J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. V. Loewenstein, D. R. Smith, R. L. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 12, 398 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Simonis, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.MTT-31, (1983), (accepted for publication).
  27. D. Charlemagne, A. Hadni, Opt. Acta 16, 53 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Westlake Plastics Company, Lenni, Pa 19052.
  29. M. N. Afsar, Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1978).
  30. M. S. Tobin (heterodyne measurement) and J. P. Sattler (calculation from infrared measurements), Harry Diamond Laboratories; private communications.

1982

G. J. Simonis, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 439 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Simonis, R. D. Felock, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., (submitted Sept.1982).

1981

M. N. Afsar, K. J. Button, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

1978

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. G. Jones, J. Phys. D 9, 819 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Lecullier, G. Chanin, Infrared Phys. 16, 273 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Jones, Proc. IEEE 123, 285 (1976).

M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

V. V. Meriakri, E. F. Ushatkin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 16, 498 (1973).

E. V. Loewenstein, D. R. Smith, R. L. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 12, 398 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cullen, P. K. Yu, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 325, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Balanis, Microwave J. 39, March (1971).

1969

D. Charlemagne, A. Hadni, Opt. Acta 16, 53 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

1967

1966

J. E. Degenford, P. D. Coleman, Proc. IEEE 54, 520 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963

R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1056 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 109, 820 (1962).

Afsar, M. N.

M. N. Afsar, K. J. Button, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1978).

Andeen, C.

J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. V.

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 109, 820 (1962).

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, in Proceedings, Conference on Microwave Measurement Techniques (IEE, London, 1961), p. 820.

Anisimova, T. I.

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, Microwave J. 39, March (1971).

Bell, E. E.

Black, W.

Borodai, S. P.

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

Button, K. J.

M. N. Afsar, K. J. Button, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J.

M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, W. G.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, G.

J. C. Lecullier, G. Chanin, Infrared Phys. 16, 273 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chantry, G. W.

M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Charlemagne, D.

D. Charlemagne, A. Hadni, Opt. Acta 16, 53 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, P. D.

J. E. Degenford, P. D. Coleman, Proc. IEEE 54, 520 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. J.

R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, A. L.

A. L. Cullen, P. K. Yu, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 325, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, W.

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 109, 820 (1962).

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, in Proceedings, Conference on Microwave Measurement Techniques (IEE, London, 1961), p. 820.

Degenford, J. E.

J. E. Degenford, P. D. Coleman, Proc. IEEE 54, 520 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Dem’Yanov, V. V.

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

Felock, R. D.

G. J. Simonis, R. D. Felock, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., (submitted Sept.1982).

Fontanella, J.

J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hadni, A.

D. Charlemagne, A. Hadni, Opt. Acta 16, 53 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Haigh, J.

J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hindin, H. J.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1056 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hine, M. J.

J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. G.

R. G. Jones, J. Phys. D 9, 819 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Jones, Proc. IEEE 123, 285 (1976).

R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Keune, D.

Konijk, D. D.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lecullier, J. C.

J. C. Lecullier, G. Chanin, Infrared Phys. 16, 273 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, E. V.

Mandel, M.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Meriakri, V. V.

V. V. Meriakri, E. F. Ushatkin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 16, 498 (1973).

Morgan, R. L.

Parker, T. J.

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Passchier, W. F.

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Renk, K. F.

R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Romashin, A. G.

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

Rosenberg, C. B.

R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Russell, E. E.

Sattler, J. P.

M. S. Tobin (heterodyne measurement) and J. P. Sattler (calculation from infrared measurements), Harry Diamond Laboratories; private communications.

Schuele, D.

J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sievering, H.

Simonis, G.

G. Simonis, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.MTT-31, (1983), (accepted for publication).

Simonis, G. J.

G. J. Simonis, R. D. Felock, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., (submitted Sept.1982).

G. J. Simonis, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 439 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

Taub, J. J.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1056 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, M. S.

M. S. Tobin (heterodyne measurement) and J. P. Sattler (calculation from infrared measurements), Harry Diamond Laboratories; private communications.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ushatkin, E. F.

V. V. Meriakri, E. F. Ushatkin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 16, 498 (1973).

Yu, P. K.

A. L. Cullen, P. K. Yu, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 325, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

R. J. Cook, R. G. Jones, C. B. Rosenberg, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 438 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, J. Chamberlain, G. W. Chantry, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 290 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

G. J. Simonis, R. D. Felock, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., (submitted Sept.1982).

R. Ulrich, K. F. Renk, L. Genzel, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-11, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. C. Lecullier, G. Chanin, Infrared Phys. 16, 273 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chamberlain, J. Haigh, M. J. Hine, Infrared Phys. 11, 75 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Parker, J. E. Ford, W. G. Chambers, Infrared Phys. 18, 215 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Instrum. Exp. Tech.

V. V. Meriakri, E. F. Ushatkin, Instrum. Exp. Tech. 16, 498 (1973).

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

M. N. Afsar, K. J. Button, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 2, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Simonis, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 439 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater.

V. V. Dem’Yanov, T. I. Anisimova, S. P. Borodai, A. G. Romashin, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 16, 916 (May1980).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Fontanella, C. Andeen, D. Schuele, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2852 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D

W. F. Passchier, D. D. Konijk, M. Mandel, M. N. Afsar, J. Phys. D 10, 509 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Jones, J. Phys. D 9, 819 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Microwave J.

C. A. Balanis, Microwave J. 39, March (1971).

Opt. Acta

D. Charlemagne, A. Hadni, Opt. Acta 16, 53 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 109, 820 (1962).

J. E. Degenford, P. D. Coleman, Proc. IEEE 54, 520 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Jones, Proc. IEEE 123, 285 (1976).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

A. L. Cullen, P. K. Yu, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 325, 493 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. J. Taub, H. J. Hindin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 1056 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Culshaw, M. V. Anderson, in Proceedings, Conference on Microwave Measurement Techniques (IEE, London, 1961), p. 820.

A. R. Von Hippel, Ed., Dielectric Materials and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1954).

Westlake Plastics Company, Lenni, Pa 19052.

M. N. Afsar, Ph.D. Thesis, U. London (1978).

M. S. Tobin (heterodyne measurement) and J. P. Sattler (calculation from infrared measurements), Harry Diamond Laboratories; private communications.

G. Simonis, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.MTT-31, (1983), (accepted for publication).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical data set (TPX plastic, S1 = 7.990 ± 0.013 mm) showing change in resonance cavity length for different sample locations along the cavity axis. The solid line is only an aid to the eye to facilitate the identification of Δmax and Δmin.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurements of the ordinary index of refraction of crystal quartz reported by various authors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Index of Refraction Measurement Comparison

Equations (1)

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( N 2 + 1 ) sin ( N β S 1 ) 2 N tan [ β ( Δ m + S 1 ) ] cos ( N β S 1 ) = 0 ,

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