Abstract

A dye laser spectrometer for ultrahigh spectral resolution is described. The laser frequency is stabilized to the side of a transmission fringe of an optical cavity by means of the usual differencing servo technique. With an intralaser-cavity AD*P phase modulator, driven by improved fast servo electronics, the linewidth of the jet stream dye laser was reduced to 1.8 kHz rms. With fast amplitude stabilization a 1.0-kHz linewidth was observed. Good long-term stability and digital frequency scanning (with a step resolution of 1 kHz and a continuous tuning range of 900 MHz) are accomplished by transferring the long-term stability of an I2-stabilized He–Ne laser to the dye laser via a second optical cavity and an offset locked He–Ne laser. A drift rate of <1 kHz/min was obtained while using this dye laser spectrometer to investigate two-photon optical Ramsey fringes. A fringe width of the Ramsey features of 17 kHz has been observed, confirming for the first time the high resolution capability of two-photon optical Ramsey resonances.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Walther, in Proceedings, Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Vail, Colo., 25–29 June (Plenum, New York, 1973).
  2. B. D. Pavlick, V. S. Letokhov, 1975 Vavilov Conference (Novosibirsk),and J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 120.
  3. P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).
  4. R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
    [Crossref]
  9. Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. R. Hanes, K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969);W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973);J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. W. P. Drever, U. Glasgow; private communication (Aug.1979);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, in preparation;T. W. Hansch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  16. We have had problems in ensuring an a priori match with frequency of two photodiodes to the desired 60 dB. High bias-voltage guard-ring detectors have very flat collection efficiency, independent of Fourier frequency. However, they pose a problem for our dc subtraction scheme as diodes of complementary polarity are not available. Recent experiments with high voltage fully depleted detectors without guard rings seem encouraging (see Refs. 21 and 22).
  17. Optical insertion loss remains an important problem even with commercially available Brewster angle transverse r41 modulators such as model 621-042 from Inrad, Northvale, N.J. (see Ref. 22). We have found that the scattering losses at the crystal surfaces can be dramatically reduced by optically replacing the crystal surface with a well-polished BK-7 Brewster angle window. (BK-7 is preferred to fused silica because of its better index match to ADP.) The interior interface losses can become negligible if a thin layer of suitable index-matching cement or oil is employed. D. Frölich (private communication) has identified Basilon 10,000 as appropriate, and this is confirmed by our experience. Presumably UV-transmitting cements or epoxies could also work, at least at low intracavity power levels. Mechanical resonance is damped by soft clamping in a Teflon fixture.
  18. Model AD-50J low noise FET input amplifier from Analog Devices, Inc., Norwood, Mass. (see Ref. 22).
  19. Model 9826 fast low delay amplifier from Optical Electronics, Inc., Tucson, Ariz. (see Ref. 22).
  20. AM 303 high voltage amplifier from Datel-Intersil, Mansfield, Mass. (see Ref. 22).
  21. FND-100 silicon photodiodes from EG and G, Inc., Salem, Mass. (see Ref. 22).
  22. Mention of this product is for technical orientation only and does not constitute an endorsement. Furthermore, it is not implied that other devices are necessarily less well-suited to our application.
  23. For example, see J. L. Hall, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings, 1971 Esfahan Symposium, M. S. Feld, A. Javan, N. A. Kurnit, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 463.
  24. Considering that misalignment preferentially couples in modes of odd symmetry, it appears to be a good design practice to make the first near degeneracy occur for a rather larger even integer (only four in our case).
  25. S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 130.
  26. M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  27. V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 3, 141 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (4)

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 3, 141 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (4)

Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
[Crossref]

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

1975 (1)

R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

G. R. Hanes, K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969);W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973);J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baird, K. M.

G. R. Hanes, K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969);W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973);J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baklanov, Ye. V.

Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
[Crossref]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bender, P. L.

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

Bergquist, J. C.

D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

Burghardt, B.

B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
[Crossref]

Carre, M.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
[Crossref]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[Crossref]

Dehmelt, H.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, U. Glasgow; private communication (Aug.1979);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, in preparation;T. W. Hansch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[Crossref]

Drullinger, R. E.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

Dubetsky, B. Y.

Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
[Crossref]

Dubetsky, B. Ya.

Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
[Crossref]

Dufay, M.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

English, T. C.

R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ezekiel, S.

F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
[Crossref]

Gaillard, M. L.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

Garstang, R. H.

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

Grove, R. E.

F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 3, 141 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[Crossref]

For example, see J. L. Hall, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings, 1971 Esfahan Symposium, M. S. Feld, A. Javan, N. A. Kurnit, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 463.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 130.

Hanes, G. R.

G. R. Hanes, K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969);W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973);J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helmcke, J.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 3, 141 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 130.

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Itano, W. N.

D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

Jitschin, W.

B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. A.

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, B. P. Stoicheff, Opt. Lett. 3, 141 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 130.

Letokhov, V. S.

B. D. Pavlick, V. S. Letokhov, 1975 Vavilov Conference (Novosibirsk),and J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 120.

Meisel, G.

B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
[Crossref]

Meuriev, G.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pavlick, B. D.

B. D. Pavlick, V. S. Letokhov, 1975 Vavilov Conference (Novosibirsk),and J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 120.

Pichanick, R. M. J.

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

Salour, M. M.

M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shishayev, A. V.

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. W.

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

Sorem, M. S.

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[Crossref]

Stoicheff, B. P.

Toschek, P.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Vasilenko, L. S.

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

Walls, F. L.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

Walther, H.

H. Walther, in Proceedings, Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Vail, Colo., 25–29 June (Plenum, New York, 1973).

West, J. B.

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
[Crossref]

Wineland, D. J.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

Winter, H.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. Y.

F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
[Crossref]

Yurshin, B. Ya.

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

Zgainski, A.

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (4)

B. Burghardt, W. Jitschin, G. Meisel, Appl. Phys. 20, 141 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, B. Y. Dubetsky, V. P. Chebotayev, Appl. Phys. 9, 171 (1976);J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977);J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 120.
[Crossref]

Ye. V. Baklanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetsky, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976);J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1635 (1978);and Ref. 25.
[Crossref]

V. P. Chebotayev, A. V. Shishayev, B. Ya. Yurshin, L. S. Vasilenko, Appl. Phys. 15, 43 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. L. Barger, M. S. Sorem, J. L. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 573 (1973).
[Crossref]

R. L. Barger, J. B. West, T. C. English, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 31 (1975).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Wu, R. E. Grove, S. Ezekiel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 73 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

P. L. Bender, J. L. Hall, R. H. Garstang, R. M. J. Pichanick, W. W. Smith, R. L. Barger, J. B. West, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 21, 599 (1976).

Metrologia (1)

G. R. Hanes, K. M. Baird, Metrologia 5, 32 (1969);W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973);J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977).
[Crossref]

M. Dufay, M. Carre, M. L. Gaillard, G. Meuriev, H. Winter, A. Zgainski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 1678 (1976);J. L. Hall, Opt. Commun. 18, 62 (1976).
[Crossref]

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

H. Walther, in Proceedings, Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Vail, Colo., 25–29 June (Plenum, New York, 1973).

B. D. Pavlick, V. S. Letokhov, 1975 Vavilov Conference (Novosibirsk),and J. C. Bergquist, R. L. Barger, D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 120.

R. W. P. Drever, U. Glasgow; private communication (Aug.1979);R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, in preparation;T. W. Hansch, B. Couillaud, Opt. Commun. 35, 441 (1980).
[Crossref]

We have had problems in ensuring an a priori match with frequency of two photodiodes to the desired 60 dB. High bias-voltage guard-ring detectors have very flat collection efficiency, independent of Fourier frequency. However, they pose a problem for our dc subtraction scheme as diodes of complementary polarity are not available. Recent experiments with high voltage fully depleted detectors without guard rings seem encouraging (see Refs. 21 and 22).

Optical insertion loss remains an important problem even with commercially available Brewster angle transverse r41 modulators such as model 621-042 from Inrad, Northvale, N.J. (see Ref. 22). We have found that the scattering losses at the crystal surfaces can be dramatically reduced by optically replacing the crystal surface with a well-polished BK-7 Brewster angle window. (BK-7 is preferred to fused silica because of its better index match to ADP.) The interior interface losses can become negligible if a thin layer of suitable index-matching cement or oil is employed. D. Frölich (private communication) has identified Basilon 10,000 as appropriate, and this is confirmed by our experience. Presumably UV-transmitting cements or epoxies could also work, at least at low intracavity power levels. Mechanical resonance is damped by soft clamping in a Teflon fixture.

Model AD-50J low noise FET input amplifier from Analog Devices, Inc., Norwood, Mass. (see Ref. 22).

Model 9826 fast low delay amplifier from Optical Electronics, Inc., Tucson, Ariz. (see Ref. 22).

AM 303 high voltage amplifier from Datel-Intersil, Mansfield, Mass. (see Ref. 22).

FND-100 silicon photodiodes from EG and G, Inc., Salem, Mass. (see Ref. 22).

Mention of this product is for technical orientation only and does not constitute an endorsement. Furthermore, it is not implied that other devices are necessarily less well-suited to our application.

For example, see J. L. Hall, in Fundamental and Applied Laser Physics, Proceedings, 1971 Esfahan Symposium, M. S. Feld, A. Javan, N. A. Kurnit, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 463.

Considering that misalignment preferentially couples in modes of odd symmetry, it appears to be a good design practice to make the first near degeneracy occur for a rather larger even integer (only four in our case).

S. A. Lee, J. Helmcke, J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectroscopy, Vol. 4 (Springer, Heidelberg, 1979), p. 130.

D. J. Wineland, W. N. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, F. L. Walls, in Proceedings, Thirty-fifth Annual Symposium on Frequency Control, Ft. Monmouth, N.J., 1981 (Electronic Industries Association, Washington D.C., 1981).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locking to the fringe maximum slope (half-height) point. The amplifier summing point A receives equal currents from photodiodes viewing the cavity resonant transmission and a broadband attenuated version of the cavity input light. Both photocurrents contribute to the shot noise current which determines the minimum laser linewidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated transient response of a high finesse optical cavity after a small step in frequency at t = 0. ΔI(t)/ΔI(∞) is the change of transmitted intensity relative to its final value; Δf is the FWHM of the cavity transmission fringe; R is the mirror reflectivity: (a) laser tuned to cavity peak transmission; (b) laser tuned initially to frequency f1/2, giving half the peak resonant response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Short-time behavior of cavity transient response to small frequency jump: (a) f = fmax; (b) f = f1/2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated transient response of a high finesse optical cavity due to a small stepwise amplitude change of the laser radiation at t = 0: (a) initial frequency is fmax; (b) initial frequency is f1/2, the frequency of half maximum response. Other symbols as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic block diagram of the frequency-stabilized dye laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electronic circuit of the dye laser stabilization including automatic unlock–relock system. PZT amplifier has low pass corner at ∼700 Hz. Photodiode time constant assumes a 2-MHz cavity full width.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency characteristic of the total servo gain. The upper 12-dB breakpoint is chosen to fall at the frequency for which G = 4. For considerably lower unity gain frequencies it is useful to have an extra 3-dB/octave slope to boost the laser frequency gain.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral density of the frequency noise of the stabilized dye laser at two different servo gains. Lower curve (at low fluctuation frequency) corresponds to optimum gain (unity gain at 2 MHz); other curve is 6 dB less gain. Curves cross at ≃ 1 MHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Block diagram of the complete dye laser spectrometer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of the Rb atomic beam apparatus for observation of two-photon Ramsey fringes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Observed two-photon Ramsey fringes. Frequency increases to left. (A) Waist separation ∼1.5 mm. Single-zone background width ∼600 kHz; Ramsey fringe width ∼40 kHz. Dwell time 0.25 sec/point. (B) High resolution, waist separation ≃4.2 mm. Single sweep at 1.06 kHz/channel. Dwell was 0.35 sec/point.

Equations (1)

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δ f s = Δ f ( ω L B η α β P ) 1 / 2 .

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