Abstract

CO2 laser absorption cross-section data are reported for acrolein, styrene, ethyl acrylate, trichloroethylene, vinyl bromide, and vinylidene chloride. These data indicate that sub parts per billion level, interference-free detection limits should be possible for these compounds by the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique. Photoacoustic detectabilities below 40 ppb should be possible for these compounds in the presence of ambient air concentrations of water vapor and other anticipated interferences. These compounds are also found not to be important interferences in the detection of toxic hydrazine-based rocket fuels by CO2 laser spectroscopic techniques.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).
  7. G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 19, 2726 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).
  9. G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).
  10. M. Sittig, Hazardous and Toxic Effects of Industrial Chemicals (Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1979);N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1979).
  11. A. McRae, L. Whelchel, Eds., Toxic Substances Control Source Book (Aspen Systems Corp., Rockville, Md., 1978).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. Konjevic, S. Jovicevic, Spectrosc. Lett. 12, 259 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. M. Klimcak, The Aerospace Corp.; private communication (Sept.1981).
  17. C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. C. Peterson, M. E. Thomas, R. J. Nordstrom, E. K. Damon, R. K. Long, Appl. Opt. 18, 834 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Air Quality Criteria for Hydrocarbons, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication AP-64 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1970).

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

1978 (4)

R. J. Brewer, C. W. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 17, 3746 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

“NIOSH Recommendations for a Hydrazines Standard,” Occup. Safety Health Rep. 8, 672 (19Oct.1978).

A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (4)

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

Atwood, J. G.

Beck, R.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Brewer, R. J.

Bruce, C. W.

Calloway, A. R.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 19, 2726 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).

Charpentier, H.

Comera, J.

Damon, E. K.

Deaton, T. F.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
[Crossref]

Depatie, D. A.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
[Crossref]

Derzko, Z.

Dewey, C. F.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
[Crossref]

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper FA2.

Englisch, W.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Gelbwachs, J. A.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 19, 2726 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 13, 1005 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).

Green, B. D.

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gürs, K.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Hackett, C. E.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hurd, B. G.

Jaussaud, C.

Jovicevic, S.

N. Konjevic, S. Jovicevic, Spectrosc. Lett. 12, 259 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kamm, R. D.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
[Crossref]

Kerl, R. J.

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kerr, E. L.

Klimcak, C. M.

C. M. Klimcak, The Aerospace Corp.; private communication (Sept.1981).

Konjevic, N.

N. Konjevic, S. Jovicevic, Spectrosc. Lett. 12, 259 (1979).
[Crossref]

Long, R. K.

Loper, G. L.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 19, 2726 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

Margolis, J. S.

Mayer, A.

Menzies, R. T.

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

Nill, K. W.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper FA2.

Nordstrom, R. J.

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[Crossref]

Peterson, J. C.

Rosengren, L.-G.

Shumate, M. S.

Sittig, M.

M. Sittig, Hazardous and Toxic Effects of Industrial Chemicals (Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1979);N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1979).

Sojka, B. Z.

Stamps, M. A.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, Appl. Opt. 19, 2726 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).

Steinfeld, J. I.

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, M. E.

van der Laan, J. E.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

Walker, T. W.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
[Crossref]

Watkins, W. R.

White, K. O.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[Crossref]

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975);M. S. Shumate, U. S. Patent4,067,653, (10Jan.1978).
[Crossref]

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
[Crossref]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[Crossref]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Occup. Safety Health Rep. (1)

“NIOSH Recommendations for a Hydrazines Standard,” Occup. Safety Health Rep. 8, 672 (19Oct.1978).

Science (1)

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrosc. Lett. (1)

N. Konjevic, S. Jovicevic, Spectrosc. Lett. 12, 259 (1979).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

C. M. Klimcak, The Aerospace Corp.; private communication (Sept.1981).

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Air Quality Criteria for Hydrocarbons, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication AP-64 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1970).

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and Their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,”Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report TR-0080(5970-09)-2 (1980).

M. Sittig, Hazardous and Toxic Effects of Industrial Chemicals (Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, N.J., 1979);N. I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1979).

A. McRae, L. Whelchel, Eds., Toxic Substances Control Source Book (Aspen Systems Corp., Rockville, Md., 1978).

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975), paper FA2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

CO2 laser absorption spectra for hydrazine, MMH, and UDMH.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CO2 laser absorption spectra for acrolein and styrene.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CO2 laser absorption spectra for ethyl acrylate and vinyl bromide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CO2 laser absorption spectra for trichloroethylene and vinylidene chloride.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I CO2 Laser Absorption Cross Sections (cm−1 atm−1) of Selected Toxic Compounds a

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of Expected CO2 Laser Photoacousiic Detectabilities a of Selected Toxic Vapors to Work Place Standards for These Compounds

Equations (1)

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p min = ( α min ) / [ σ ( λ ) ] .

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