Abstract

The first blue-green laser propagation measurements through clouds that simulate the geometry of a satellite-to-ground communication link were made. The time history of large diameter (∼6-km) pulses illuminating cloud tops was recorded as a function of receiver field of view (FOV). The maximum pulse stretching observed for nanosecond laser pulses was 20 μsec for clouds of 1.5-km thickness. It was shown that the pulses could in general be represented by a linear combination of two modified γ functions: One, a slowly decaying term, represents the power from the diffusion type of multiple scattering. The other, a much faster decaying term, represents the power from a direct nonscattered portion of the beam or from a lower order of multiple scattering. For very dense clouds, the only component measured was the diffusion type. Data of FOV scans are presented for various values of optical thickness.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. A. Bucher, R. M. Lerner, Appl. Opt. 12, 2401 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. H. Paik, M. Tebyani, D. J. Epstein, R. S. Kennedy, J. H. Shapiro, Appl. Opt. 17, 899 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. C. Mooradian, M. Geller, L. B. Stotts, D. H. Stephens, R. A. Krautwald, Appl. Opt. 18, 429 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980).
  5. J. C. Matter, R. G. Bradley, Appl. Opt. 20, 2220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. G. Ceruti, “Determination of Integrated Optical Thickness of Clouds by Lunar Irradiance Measurements,” Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, NOSC TR 470 (Oct.1979).
  7. E. A. Bucher, Appl. Opt. 12, 2391 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. F. Hansen, H. S. Stewart, “Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report on Phase 1,” HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., HSS-B-074 (Oct.1980).
  9. G. R. Hostetter, “Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report,” GTE/Sylvania, contract N00014-78-C-0716 (Feb.1980).
  10. L. Schlessinger, R. F. Lutomirski, S. F. Fujimura, “Analysis of Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Propagation Experiment,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 1119, contract N-00014-80-C-0931 (May1981).
  11. Naval Ocean Systems Center Technical Advisor to the Blue-Green Optical Communications Program Joint Coordinating Committee, “Naval Blue-Green Single-Pulse Downlink Propagation Model,” San Diego, Calif., NOSC TR 387 (1Jan.1979).
  12. A. P. Ciervo, “Multiple Scattering in Clouds,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 923, contract N00014-78-C0751 (Sept.1979).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1973 (2)

Bradley, R. G.

J. C. Matter, R. G. Bradley, Appl. Opt. 20, 2220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980).

Bucher, E. A.

Ceruti, M. G.

M. G. Ceruti, “Determination of Integrated Optical Thickness of Clouds by Lunar Irradiance Measurements,” Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, NOSC TR 470 (Oct.1979).

Ciervo, A. P.

A. P. Ciervo, “Multiple Scattering in Clouds,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 923, contract N00014-78-C0751 (Sept.1979).

Epstein, D. J.

Fujimura, S. F.

L. Schlessinger, R. F. Lutomirski, S. F. Fujimura, “Analysis of Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Propagation Experiment,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 1119, contract N-00014-80-C-0931 (May1981).

Geller, M.

Hansen, D. F.

D. F. Hansen, H. S. Stewart, “Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report on Phase 1,” HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., HSS-B-074 (Oct.1980).

Hostetter, G. R.

G. R. Hostetter, “Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report,” GTE/Sylvania, contract N00014-78-C-0716 (Feb.1980).

Kennedy, R. S.

Krautwald, R. A.

Lerner, R. M.

Lutomirski, R. F.

L. Schlessinger, R. F. Lutomirski, S. F. Fujimura, “Analysis of Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Propagation Experiment,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 1119, contract N-00014-80-C-0931 (May1981).

Matter, J. C.

J. C. Matter, R. G. Bradley, Appl. Opt. 20, 2220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980).

Mooradian, G. C.

Paik, W. H.

Schlessinger, L.

L. Schlessinger, R. F. Lutomirski, S. F. Fujimura, “Analysis of Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Propagation Experiment,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 1119, contract N-00014-80-C-0931 (May1981).

Shapiro, J. H.

Stephens, D. H.

Stewart, H. S.

D. F. Hansen, H. S. Stewart, “Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report on Phase 1,” HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., HSS-B-074 (Oct.1980).

Stotts, L. B.

Tebyani, M.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Other (7)

M. G. Ceruti, “Determination of Integrated Optical Thickness of Clouds by Lunar Irradiance Measurements,” Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, NOSC TR 470 (Oct.1979).

D. F. Hansen, H. S. Stewart, “Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report on Phase 1,” HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., HSS-B-074 (Oct.1980).

G. R. Hostetter, “Downlink Laser Cloud Experiment, Final Report,” GTE/Sylvania, contract N00014-78-C-0716 (Feb.1980).

L. Schlessinger, R. F. Lutomirski, S. F. Fujimura, “Analysis of Kauai Downlink Laser Cloud Propagation Experiment,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 1119, contract N-00014-80-C-0931 (May1981).

Naval Ocean Systems Center Technical Advisor to the Blue-Green Optical Communications Program Joint Coordinating Committee, “Naval Blue-Green Single-Pulse Downlink Propagation Model,” San Diego, Calif., NOSC TR 387 (1Jan.1979).

A. P. Ciervo, “Multiple Scattering in Clouds,” Pacific Sierra Research Corp., Report 923, contract N00014-78-C0751 (Sept.1979).

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., 1980).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cloud propagation experimental layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup on location.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variable FOV receiver and data recording setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative normalized pulse shapes for different optical thickness of clouds.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical data set of FOV pulses (run 189).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Analyses of run 189 with FOV = 34°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analyses of run 189 with FOV = 17°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Analyses of run 189 with FOV = 8.5°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Analyses of run 189 with FOV = 4.25°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical data set of FOV pulses in dense clouds (run 182).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Analyses of run 182 with FOV = 34°.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Analyses of run 182 with FOV = 17°.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Analyses of run 182 with FOV = 8.5°.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Analyses of run 182 with FOV = 4.25°.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Run 129.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Run 167.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Typical variable FOV scans for different optical thickness.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Measurable Parameters of a Short Laser Pulse that has been Distorted by Multiple Scattering in the Diffusion Limit

Tables Icon

Table II Results of Analysis of Run 189

Tables Icon

Table III Results of Analysis of Run 182

Tables Icon

Table IV Results of Analysis of Runs 129 and 167

Equations (5)

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τ c = 1.69 1.42 + τ D ,
t = Δ r / c ,
t = 0.62 T c τ D 0.92 ,
P ( t ) = Ct exp ( kt ) .
E 1 E 2

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