Abstract

The 3p 3P state of O and the 2s22p23p 4D0 states of N are populated by two-photon absorption at 226 and 211 nm, respectively, and the resulting near-IR fluorescence is detected. The exciting photons are provided by stimulated Raman frequency shifting, and the experiments are performed in a flow discharge. The measured lifetime of 39 (O) and 27 (N) nsec and quenching rate constants of 2.5 × 10−10 cm−3 sec−1 for collisions of N2 with each atom indicate promise for this method as a diagnostic tool in flames and plasmas.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. J. Dasch, J. H. Bechtel, Opt. Lett. 6, 36 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. E. Teets, J. H. Bechtel, Opt. Lett. 6, 458 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 6, 142 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, Vol. 134 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Schofield, M. Steinberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 501 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. S. Pindzola, Rev. A 17, 1021 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Omidvar, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1576 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. McIlrath, R. Hudson, A. Aiken, T. D. Wilkerson, Appl. Opt. 18, 316 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
  10. J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.
  12. D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Wilke, W. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978);Appl. Phys. 18, 177 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Paisner, R. S. Hargrove, in Digest of Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), postdeadline paper II-4.
  15. D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Ackerhalt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 922 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. K. Bischel, D. R. Crosley, to be published.
  18. W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).
  21. H. Kogelnik, T. Li, Appl. Opt. 5, 1550 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. K. Bischel, G. Black, to be published.
  23. J. E. Solarski, W. L. Wiese, Phys. Rev. A 135, 1236 (1964).
  24. L. R. Doherty, Thesis, U. Michigan (1963), quoted in Ref. 23.
  25. G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. A 2, 397 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Richter, Z. Astrophys. 51, 177 (1961).
  28. D. R. Bates, A. Damgaard, Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A 242, 101 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Catherinot, A. Sy, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1511 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (10)

C. J. Dasch, J. H. Bechtel, Opt. Lett. 6, 36 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Teets, J. H. Bechtel, Opt. Lett. 6, 458 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 6, 142 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schofield, M. Steinberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 501 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 922 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

K. Omidvar, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1576 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

T. J. McIlrath, R. Hudson, A. Aiken, T. D. Wilkerson, Appl. Opt. 18, 316 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Catherinot, A. Sy, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (4)

T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Wilke, W. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978);Appl. Phys. 18, 177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pindzola, Rev. A 17, 1021 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. A 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

J. E. Solarski, W. L. Wiese, Phys. Rev. A 135, 1236 (1964).

1961 (1)

J. Richter, Z. Astrophys. 51, 177 (1961).

1949 (1)

D. R. Bates, A. Damgaard, Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A 242, 101 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Ackerhalt, J. R.

J. R. Ackerhalt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 922 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, A.

Allen, J. E.

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. R.

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
[CrossRef]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, A. Damgaard, Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A 242, 101 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Bischel, W. K.

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).

W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, D. R. Crosley, to be published.

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, to be published.

Black, G.

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, to be published.

Bokor, J.

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burrell, K. H.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.

Catherinot, A.

A. Catherinot, A. Sy, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clyne, M. A. A.

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, W. E.

T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).

W. K. Bischel, D. R. Crosley, to be published.

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
[CrossRef]

Damgaard, A.

D. R. Bates, A. Damgaard, Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A 242, 101 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Dasch, C. J.

Doherty, L. R.

L. R. Doherty, Thesis, U. Michigan (1963), quoted in Ref. 23.

Eames, D. R.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.

Edelstein, S. A.

T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fansler, T. D.

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Glennon, B. M.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).

Hargrove, R. S.

D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Paisner, R. S. Hargrove, in Digest of Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), postdeadline paper II-4.

Harris, S. J.

Hudson, R.

Irvin, J. A.

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P. J.

W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Lawrence, G. M.

G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. A 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Marx, B. R.

B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

Muller, C. H.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.

Nip, W. S.

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Omidvar, K.

K. Omidvar, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1576 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Paisner, J. A.

D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Paisner, R. S. Hargrove, in Digest of Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), postdeadline paper II-4.

Perry, B. E.

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).

Pindzola, M. S.

M. S. Pindzola, Rev. A 17, 1021 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Quickenden, T. I.

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Richter, J.

J. Richter, Z. Astrophys. 51, 177 (1961).

Sangster, D. F.

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W.

V. Wilke, W. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978);Appl. Phys. 18, 177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, K.

K. Schofield, M. Steinberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 501 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. W.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).

Solarski, J. E.

J. E. Solarski, W. L. Wiese, Phys. Rev. A 135, 1236 (1964).

Steinberg, M.

K. Schofield, M. Steinberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 501 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stroz, R. H.

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sumons, J.

B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sy, A.

A. Catherinot, A. Sy, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Teets, R. E.

Trotman, S. M.

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

White, J. C.

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W. L.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).

J. E. Solarski, W. L. Wiese, Phys. Rev. A 135, 1236 (1964).

Wilke, V.

V. Wilke, W. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978);Appl. Phys. 18, 177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, T. D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Wilke, W. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. 16, 151 (1978);Appl. Phys. 18, 177 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (2)

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 23 (1981);Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981);C. H. Muller, private communication.

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. I. Quickenden, S. M. Trotman, J. A. Irvin, D. F. Sangster, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 (1)

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

B. R. Marx, J. Sumons, L. Allen, J. Phys. B 11, L273 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1)

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, B. M. Glennon, “Atomic Transition Probabilities,” Nat. Stand. Ref. Data Ser. Nat. Bur. Stand. (1966).

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Schofield, M. Steinberg, Opt. Eng. 20, 501 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

D. R. Bates, A. Damgaard, Philos. Trans. Soc. London Ser. A 242, 101 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

A. Catherinot, A. Sy, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1511 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gallagher, W. E. Cooke, S. A. Edelstein, Phys. Rev. A 17, 125 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Omidvar, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1576 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Stroz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Solarski, W. L. Wiese, Phys. Rev. A 135, 1236 (1964).

W. K. Bischel, P. J. Kelly, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 13, 1817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lawrence, Phys. Rev. A 2, 397 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Eimerl, R. S. Hargrove, J. A. Paisner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 651 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 922 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. A (1)

M. S. Pindzola, Rev. A 17, 1021 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Z. Astrophys. (1)

J. Richter, Z. Astrophys. 51, 177 (1961).

Other (6)

L. R. Doherty, Thesis, U. Michigan (1963), quoted in Ref. 23.

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, to be published.

W. K. Bischel, D. R. Crosley, to be published.

J. A. Paisner, R. S. Hargrove, in Digest of Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), postdeadline paper II-4.

D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, Vol. 134 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, T. D. Fansler, in Seventeenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979), p. 797.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

States and wavelengths involved in the detection scheme. Fine state splittings are too small to show on this scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experiment. The wavelengths (nm) shown are those pertinent to O atoms, which are produced in the reaction NO + N → N2 + O. Stokes beams (not shown) are also present in the Raman cell output.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation scan through the P2 and Q2 branches of the (0,0) band of the NO γ system near 2263 Å, showing the linewidth of the third anti-Stokes component as well as serving as a thermometer. The frequency given is −44000.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation scans through each of the O 3PJ transitions. The stick diagrams correspond to the expected positions of the upper state components. The laser frequency is in cm−1; note that the gain increases from top to bottom.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative signal vs relative laser intensity for the O (3P2) excitation. The two lines are at the fitted slope 2.6 ± 0.2 and a slope of 2 corresponding to strictly quadratic behavior.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Bottom curve) experimental data on a linear scale for the time dependence of the N (4D7/2) signal. (Top) a fit of the decay portion to an exponential. This exemplary run was made at 0.28-Torr N2, 0.06-Torr NO, and 9.4-Torr He, yielding τ = 26.2 nsec.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured vs calculated intensity (both arbitrary units) for the three fine structure components of the O atom transition shown in Fig. 4. The line is fitted and not constrained to pass through 0.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

As Fig. 7 for the four components of the N atom transition.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Decay rate of the O atoms as a function of total pressure of N2. Each point is an individual run.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Decay rates for N as a function of N2 pressure. Each point and its error bars represent an average of the measurements at that pressure.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Two-Photon Excitation Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Relative Values of α(Jg,Je)

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α e f = ( 2 π ) 3 h c ν l | P e g | 2 g ( 2 ν l ) P e g = i e | μ | i i | μ | g Δ E e g h ν l ,
α ( J e , J g ) = a ν l | P e g i | 2 Δ E i l 2 ( 2 Δ ν D 2 + Δ ν l 2 ) 1 / 2
| P e g i | 2 = ϕ e n l ( r ) | r | ϕ i n l ( r ) ϕ i n l ( r ) | r | ϕ g n l ( r ) | 2 × 1 2 J g + 1 m g , m e | J i , m i J e m e | cos θ | J i m i × J i m i | cos θ | J g m g | 2 .
W e g = α e g I l 2 / h ν l ,
d N e d t = W e g N g ( k r + k Q n ) N e
α ( cm 4 / W ) = β υ HF 0.94 π 2 τ Δ ν D h ν .
N * ( t = T p ) = α I 2 h ν N 0 T p ,
N T * = π 2 N 0 α h c E 2 T p ,
I ( J g ) α ( J g ) N ( J g ) ;
α ( J g ) J e α ( J e , J g ) ;
| J m J = m S C ( L S J ; m L m S m J ) | L , m L | S m S
k d = k r + k Q n .

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