Abstract

The light-focusing plastic rod (LFR) and fiber (LFF) were fabricated by photocopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with vinyl phenylacetate (VPAc). The MMA–VPAc LFR has much higher clarity than that of the MMA–vinyl benzoate LFR reported previously. Using the benzoin methyl ether as the initiator, which initiates photopolymerization preferentially, led to a much steeper index distribution than using benzoyl peroxide, which initiates thermal- and photochemical polymerization simultaneously. The relationships between preparation condition and optical characteristics were clarified in terms of the index distribution, light scattering, lens function, and attenuation of light transmission.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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1981 (5)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 11, 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 2726 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (5)

1979 (2)

J. Koberstein, T. P. Russell, R. S. Stein, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 1719 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Oikawa, M. Fujiki, Y. Katayama, Electron. Lett. 15, 829 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. F. Deutsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

1957 (1)

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. R.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Brumberger, H.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Chino, M.

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, T. F.

T. F. Deutsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fujiki, M.

S. Oikawa, M. Fujiki, Y. Katayama, Electron. Lett. 15, 829 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Herriott, D. R.

Kapron, F. P.

Katayama, Y.

S. Oikawa, M. Fujiki, Y. Katayama, Electron. Lett. 15, 829 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kawazu, M.

Kimoto, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, to be published in J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

Kitano, I.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Koberstein, J.

J. Koberstein, T. P. Russell, R. S. Stein, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 1719 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 11, 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 2726 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, to be published in J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

Koizumi, K.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Matsumura, H.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Matsushita, K.

McKenna, J.

Ogura, Y.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 2726 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 11, 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, to be published in J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

Oikawa, S.

S. Oikawa, M. Fujiki, Y. Katayama, Electron. Lett. 15, 829 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Palais, J. C.

Rawson, E. G.

Russell, T. P.

J. Koberstein, T. P. Russell, R. S. Stein, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 1719 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, S. R.

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Senga, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R. S.

J. Koberstein, T. P. Russell, R. S. Stein, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 1719 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terao, Y.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Toyama, M.

Uchida, T.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt. (9)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Deutsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Oikawa, M. Fujiki, Y. Katayama, Electron. Lett. 15, 829 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Debye, H. R. Anderson, H. Brumberger, J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data (1)

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. (1)

J. Koberstein, T. P. Russell, R. S. Stein, J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 1719 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) (3)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 11, 439 (1981), in English.

Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Other (2)

Registered trade name of Carl Zeiss, Jena, East Germany.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, to be published in J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effects of the BPO concentration and M2 content on the scat./scat.PMMA: (○,△), MMA–VB copolymer bulk; (◑,◮), MMA–VPAc copolymer bulk; (○,◑), BPO = 0.5 wt. %; (△,◮), M2 content = 30 wt. %.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the monomer feed ratio on A′ and R c /R p for the MMA–VPAc LFR with BPO. BPO concentration (wt. %): (○,◑), 0.25; (△,◮), 0.5; (□,◨), 1.0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the index distribution obtained from the computer simulation with that from the experimental measurement of the LFR: P MMA/VPAc = 7.5 (wt./wt.); Q MMA/VB = 4.0 (wt./wt.); dashed curve, calculated from the computer simulation; (○), experimental measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of MMA/VPAc on A′ and R c /R p for the MMA–VPAc LFR with BME, where BME = 3.0 wt. %.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative index distribution of the MMA–VPAc LFR with BME: A, MMA/VPAc = 7.5 (wt./wt.) and BME = 3.0 wt. %; B, MMA/VPAc = 4.0 and BME = 3.0 wt. %; C, MMA/VPAc = 4.0 and BME = 4.0 wt. %.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effects of T d , MMA/VPAc, and BPO concentration on the attenuation at 633-nm wavelength: (○), MMA/VPAc = 4.0 (wt./wt.) and BPO = 0.5 wt. %; (△), T d = 280°C and BPO = 0.5 wt. %; (□), T d = 280°C and MMA/VPAc = 4.0 (wt./wt.).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attenuation spectrum of the MMA–VPAc fiber obtained at MMA/VPAc = 4.0 (wt./wt.) and BPO = 0.5 wt. %.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Representative index distributions of the MMA–VPAc LFF: E, MMA/VPAc = 4.0 (wt./wt.) and BPO = 0.5 wt. %; dashed curve, the preform rod of curve E; D, MMA/VPAc = 4.0 and BME = 4.0 wt.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Images of a checkered pattern with a (1.6 mm)2 square through the LFR (ϕ = 3 mm) and LFF (ϕ = 0.3 mm) lenses, where Z ≃ ¼ L. Z(mm): (a) 8.3; (b) 11.7; (c) 15.0; (d) 1.9. (a), (b), and (c) correspond to curves A, B, and C in Fig. 5, and (d) corresponds to curve D in Fig. 8.

Tables (1)

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Table I Monomer Reactivity Ratio

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) = n 0 ( 1 - 1 2 A r 2 ) = n 0 [ 1 - 1 2 A ( r R p ) 2 ] ,
i = 4 π η 2 V 0 γ ( r ) r 2 sin ( h r ) h r d r ,
η 2 = ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ( α 1 - α 2 ) 2 ,
( α 1 - α 2 ) = 9 n ( n 1 - n 2 ) 2 π ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 ,
n ¯ = 2 R p 2 0 R p r · n ( r ) d r .
L = 2 π / A .

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