Abstract

The use of adaptive optics has been increasingly proposed as a solution to a variety of optical phase distortion problems. Deformable (rubber) mirror concepts have utilized numerous design techniques for phase distortion correction. Deformable mirror requirements are reviewed for several applications along with projected requirements to meet the demands of future optical systems. Actuator and mirror design requirements are addressed along with their interrelationship with electronic driver design.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. H. Everson, J. A. Greenough, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 91 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).
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  15. R. H. Freeman, H. R. Garcia, Appl. Opt. 21, 589 (1982).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Pearson, R. H. Freeman, E. C. Reynolds, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 7, Chap. 8.
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Kenemuth, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 171, 32 (1979).
  19. A. W. Angelback et al., Internal United Technologies Research Center Report FR-11531 (May1979).
  20. A. Fuschetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 17 (1979).
  21. J. W. Hardy, “Active Optics: A New Technology for the Control of Light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Hansen, Final Report, Contract N60921-75-C-0067 (June1975). (Available from NATC. Tech. Info. Serv.)
  23. D. J. Chiarappa, C. R. Claysmith, J. Guidance Control V4, 435 (1981).
  24. N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).
  25. N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).
  26. L. T. James, R. M. Heimlich, “Advanced Laser Optical Techniques,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-78-136 (Feb.1979).
  27. S. Adelman, “Electromagnetic Actuators,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-79-190 (Jan.1981).
  28. J. A. Greenough, E. D. Hasselmark, Deformable Mirror Technology Program, Air Force Weapons Laboratory Final Report (F29601-C-80-0003) (1982).
  29. W. Glomb, United Technologies Research Center; internal communication.

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

D. J. Chiarappa, C. R. Claysmith, J. Guidance Control V4, 435 (1981).

1979 (5)

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).

J. R. Kenemuth, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 171, 32 (1979).

A. Fuschetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 17 (1979).

J. H. Everson, J. A. Greenough, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 91 (1979).

1978 (2)

J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 141, 11 (1978).

J. W. Hardy, “Active Optics: A New Technology for the Control of Light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (5)

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

R. Hudgin, S. Lipson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

K. D. Mielenz, Appl. Opt. 13, A14 (Feb.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, P. F. Cone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

Adelman, S.

S. Adelman, “Electromagnetic Actuators,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-79-190 (Jan.1981).

Albertinetti, N. P.

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).

Aldrich, R. E.

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).

Angelback, A. W.

A. W. Angelback et al., Internal United Technologies Research Center Report FR-11531 (May1979).

Angelbeck, A. W.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Bar-Tal, G. S.

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

Bridges, W. B.

Callahan, G. M.

J. E. Harvey, G. M. Callahan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1367 (1977).

Chiarappa, D. J.

D. J. Chiarappa, C. R. Claysmith, J. Guidance Control V4, 435 (1981).

Claus, A. C.

Claysmith, C. R.

D. J. Chiarappa, C. R. Claysmith, J. Guidance Control V4, 435 (1981).

Cone, P. F.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, P. F. Cone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Everson, J. H.

J. H. Everson, J. A. Greenough, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 91 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).

J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 141, 11 (1978).

Feinleib, J.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, P. F. Cone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. H.

R. H. Freeman, H. R. Garcia, Appl. Opt. 21, 589 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Pearson, R. H. Freeman, E. C. Reynolds, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 7, Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Fuschetto, A.

A. Fuschetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 17 (1979).

Gagnon, E.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Garcia, H. R.

Gebhardt, F. G.

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

Glomb, W.

W. Glomb, United Technologies Research Center; internal communication.

Greenough, J. A.

J. H. Everson, J. A. Greenough, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 91 (1979).

J. A. Greenough, E. D. Hasselmark, Deformable Mirror Technology Program, Air Force Weapons Laboratory Final Report (F29601-C-80-0003) (1982).

Greiner, A. F.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Grosso, R. P.

Hansen, S.

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, “Active Optics: A New Technology for the Control of Light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hardy, J. E. Lefebvre, C. L. Koliopoulos, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 360 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. E.

J. E. Harvey, G. M. Callahan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1367 (1977).

Hasselmark, E. D.

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

J. A. Greenough, E. D. Hasselmark, Deformable Mirror Technology Program, Air Force Weapons Laboratory Final Report (F29601-C-80-0003) (1982).

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Heimlich, R. M.

L. T. James, R. M. Heimlich, “Advanced Laser Optical Techniques,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-78-136 (Feb.1979).

Hudgin, R.

R. Hudgin, S. Lipson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hudgin, R. H.

James, L. T.

L. T. James, R. M. Heimlich, “Advanced Laser Optical Techniques,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-78-136 (Feb.1979).

Jaminet, J. F.

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

Kendall, J. F.

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

Kenemuth, J. R.

J. R. Kenemuth, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 171, 32 (1979).

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Lefebvre, J. E.

Lipson, S.

R. Hudgin, S. Lipson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, P. F. Cone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McClurg, W. C.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Mielenz, K. D.

Nussmeier, T. A.

Pearson, J. E.

Pedinoff, M. E.

Pietro, R. C.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Reynolds, E. C.

J. E. Pearson, R. H. Freeman, E. C. Reynolds, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 7, Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

Stavroudis, O. N.

Wisner, G. R.

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

Yellin, M.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Feinleib, S. G. Lipson, P. F. Cone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 311 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Hudgin, S. Lipson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Guidance Control (1)

D. J. Chiarappa, C. R. Claysmith, J. Guidance Control V4, 435 (1981).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. W. Hardy, “Active Optics: A New Technology for the Control of Light,” Proc. IEEE 66, 651 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (6)

A. Fuschetto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 17 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 11 (1979).

N. P. Albertinetti, R. E. Aldrich, J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 28 (1979).

J. R. Kenemuth, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 171, 32 (1979).

J. H. Everson, J. A. Greenough, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 179, 91 (1979).

J. H. Everson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 141, 11 (1978).

Other (9)

A. W. Angelback et al., Internal United Technologies Research Center Report FR-11531 (May1979).

J. E. Pearson, R. H. Freeman, E. C. Reynolds, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 7, Chap. 8.
[CrossRef]

A. W. Angelbeck, R. H. Freeman, R. C. Pietro, E. D. Hasselmark, E. Gagnon, A. F. Greiner, W. C. McClurg, G. R. Wisner, United Technologies Research Center Report (1975).

F. G. Gebhardt, J. F. Kendall, J. F. Jaminet, E. D. Hasselmark, G. S. Bar-Tal, United Technologies Research Center Report N911771-11 (1974).

L. T. James, R. M. Heimlich, “Advanced Laser Optical Techniques,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-78-136 (Feb.1979).

S. Adelman, “Electromagnetic Actuators,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report AFWL-TR-79-190 (Jan.1981).

J. A. Greenough, E. D. Hasselmark, Deformable Mirror Technology Program, Air Force Weapons Laboratory Final Report (F29601-C-80-0003) (1982).

W. Glomb, United Technologies Research Center; internal communication.

S. Hansen, Final Report, Contract N60921-75-C-0067 (June1975). (Available from NATC. Tech. Info. Serv.)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Archimedes’ adaptive optical system using segmented mirror elements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustrative if unlikely use of a continuous surface deformable mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Twenty-segment adjustable mirror assembly. Each segment is individually adjustable in piston and two axis of tilt by micrometers: (a) front view of assembly; (b) side view; (c) mirror mounting configuration of actuators.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Segmented, active, and deformable primary mirrors will be required for large lightweight telescopes. The individual segments must be positioned (phased) relative to each other and may be deformable a well.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Conceptualizations of continuous surface deformable mirrors. The actuators can be piezoelectric, electromagnetic, hydraulic, or even driven by stepper motors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

All-beryllium 37-actuator deformable mirror. Each preloaded spring actuator cell has a PZT stack driver.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Molybdenum 61-actuator deformable mirror that uses discrete piezoelectric actuators.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Molybdenum 21-cm active area, 52-actuator deformable mirror with fully removable actuators.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Advanced discrete actuator deformable mirrors. Each has sixty-nine piezoelectric actuators tailored to the mirror function: (a) large-amplitude low-frequency molybdenum corrector mirror; (b) low-amplitude high-frequency beryllium dither mirror.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Three-actuator deformable mirror assembly.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic representation of the trends in discrete actuator deformable mirror performance parameters as a function of surface deflection amplitude.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic cross section of typical discrete deformable mirror actuator designs: piezoelectric (PZT), electromagnetic (EM), magnetostrictive (MAG), and hydraulic (HYDR).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Digital piezoelectric actuator concept that utilizes fixed voltage switching amplifier drive.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Deformable Mirror Requirements

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of Actuator Types a

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