Abstract

The relationships between beam attenuation spectra, chlorophyll and pheophytin pigment concentrations, and particle size distributions are examined for a coastal region (Monterey Bay area) believed to have negligible concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic compounds (during May 1977) but large quantities of phytoplankton and resuspended sediments. It was found that the slope of the beam attenuation spectra increases when the hyperbolic slope of the size distribution increases. The magnitude of this increase in slope was consistent with calculations based on a range of particle diameters from 0.5 to 30 μm, so that it would be possible to predict the slope of the particle size distribution if the slope of the beam attenuation spectra is known. The ratio of chlorophyll and pheophytin pigments to suspended volume concentrations affected the beam attenuation spectra to a lesser degree and in a more complex manner. Because of the strong effect of slope, it was concluded that the chlorophyll and pheophytin pigment content of suspended particles could not be efficiently predicted by means of beam attenuation measurements.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Chap. 3.
  2. N. G. Jerlov, in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), Chap. 4.
  3. G. V. Winters, D. E. Buckley, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10, 455 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Sheldon, T. R. Parsons, A practical Manual on the Use of the Coulter Counter in Marine Research (Coulter Electronic Sales Co., Toronto, 1967).
  5. J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).
  7. A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. V. Zaneveld, in Proceedings, 1980 International DUMAND Symposium1, 1 (Hawaii Dumand Center, Honolulu, 1981).
  9. K. Bullrich, in Advances in Geophysics10, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 121.
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Reuter, Oceanol. Acta 3, 325 (1980).
  11. J. C. Kitchen, Particle Size Distributions and the Vertical Distribution of Suspended Matter in the Upwelling Region Off Oregon (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 77-10, 1977).
  12. M. Kishino, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 74, 31 (1980).
  13. A. Morel, A. Bricaud, Deep Sea Res. 28a, 1375 (1981).
  14. J. L. Mueller, “The Influence of Phytoplankton on Ocean Color Spectra” Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State U., Corvallis (1973), Sec. 4.4.3.

1981 (1)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, Deep Sea Res. 28a, 1375 (1981).

1980 (3)

G. V. Winters, D. E. Buckley, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10, 455 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Reuter, Oceanol. Acta 3, 325 (1980).

M. Kishino, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 74, 31 (1980).

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bartz, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Bricaud, A.

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, Deep Sea Res. 28a, 1375 (1981).

Buckley, D. E.

G. V. Winters, D. E. Buckley, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10, 455 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bullrich, K.

K. Bullrich, in Advances in Geophysics10, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Chap. 3.

N. G. Jerlov, in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), Chap. 4.

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 74, 31 (1980).

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen, Particle Size Distributions and the Vertical Distribution of Suspended Matter in the Upwelling Region Off Oregon (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 77-10, 1977).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Menzies, D.

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Moore, S.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, Deep Sea Res. 28a, 1375 (1981).

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, “The Influence of Phytoplankton on Ocean Color Spectra” Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State U., Corvallis (1973), Sec. 4.4.3.

Pak, H.

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Parsons, T. R.

R. W. Sheldon, T. R. Parsons, A practical Manual on the Use of the Coulter Counter in Marine Research (Coulter Electronic Sales Co., Toronto, 1967).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, R.

R. Reuter, Oceanol. Acta 3, 325 (1980).

Sheldon, R. W.

R. W. Sheldon, T. R. Parsons, A practical Manual on the Use of the Coulter Counter in Marine Research (Coulter Electronic Sales Co., Toronto, 1967).

Spinrad, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Winters, G. V.

G. V. Winters, D. E. Buckley, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10, 455 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, in Proceedings, 1980 International DUMAND Symposium1, 1 (Hawaii Dumand Center, Honolulu, 1981).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

Deep Sea Res. (1)

A. Morel, A. Bricaud, Deep Sea Res. 28a, 1375 (1981).

Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. (1)

G. V. Winters, D. E. Buckley, Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10, 455 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

J. C. Kitchen, D. Menzies, H. Pak, J. R. V. Zaneveld, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 775 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Oceanol. Acta (1)

R. Reuter, Oceanol. Acta 3, 325 (1980).

Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. (1)

M. Kishino, Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res. Jpn. 74, 31 (1980).

Other (8)

J. C. Kitchen, Particle Size Distributions and the Vertical Distribution of Suspended Matter in the Upwelling Region Off Oregon (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 77-10, 1977).

J. L. Mueller, “The Influence of Phytoplankton on Ocean Color Spectra” Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State U., Corvallis (1973), Sec. 4.4.3.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, in Proceedings, 1980 International DUMAND Symposium1, 1 (Hawaii Dumand Center, Honolulu, 1981).

K. Bullrich, in Advances in Geophysics10, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964), p. 121.
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, R. Bartz, D. Menzies, S. Moore, R. Spinrad, H. Pak, Optical, Hydrographic and Chemical Observations in the Monterey Bay Area During May and September 1977 (School of Oceanography, Oregon State U., 78-13, 1978).

R. W. Sheldon, T. R. Parsons, A practical Manual on the Use of the Coulter Counter in Marine Research (Coulter Electronic Sales Co., Toronto, 1967).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976), Chap. 3.

N. G. Jerlov, in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steemann Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974), Chap. 4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of nutrients, beam attenuation coefficients (650 nm), and hyperbolic slopes of the size distributions during 5 and 10 May 1977 along a transect in Monterey Bay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Suspended particle volume and chloropigment concentrations as a function of the slope of the particle size distribution and the ratio of chloropigment concentrations to suspended particle volume concentrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Composite distribution of water types along an idealized transect. The samples are classified as having high or low slopes, with low meaning <3.6, and as having high, medium, or low ratios of chloropigment to suspended particle volume concentration, with the medium encompassing 6.0–10.0 g/liter. Thus, a region labeled HM would be characterized by samples with particle size distributions with a slope >3.6 and a particle pigment content between 6.0 and 10.0 g/liter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam attenuation coefficients at 450-nm wavelength are plotted vs the attenuation coefficients at 650-nm wavelength. Samples with particle size distributions characterized by hyperbolic slopes between 4.0 and 4.4 are plotted with solid symbols, while those characterized by slopes between 2.8 and 3.2 are represented with open symbols. Low, medium, and high ratios of chloropigment to suspended particle volume are denoted by circles, triangles, and squares, respectively, with values between 6.0 and 10.0 g/liter labeled medium.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Particulate beam attenuation coefficients at each wavelength were divided by the sum of the particulate beam attenuation coefficients at the six wavelengths. Average values of these normalized particulate beam attenuation spectra are given for samples grouped according to their size distributions and pigment to suspended volume ratios. The average spectrum for groups with hyperbolic slopes <3.6 are plotted with open symbols, while groups with slopes >3.6 are plotted with solid symbols. The average spectra for groups with low, medium, and high ratios of chloropigment to suspended particulate volume are given with solid, dashed, and dotted lines, respectively. Medium ratios encompass 6.0–10.0 g/liter.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Squared Correlation Coefficients for the Regressions Between the particle Size Distribution Slopes, Suspended Volume Concentrations, Chloropigment Concentrations, Chloropigment to Suspended Volume Ratios, Chlorophyll a to Chloropigment Ratios and Beam Attenuation Coefficients (650 nm) a

Tables Icon

Table II Squared Correlation Coefficients a for the Regressions Between All Possible Spectral Ratios of the Particulate Beam Attenuation Coefficients and Chlorophyll Plus Pheophytin, Suspended Particle Volume, Hyperbolic Slopes of the Size Distributions, and Chloropigment to Suspended Particle Volume Ratios

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of the Observed Average Ratio cp(450)/cp(650) for the Samples Separated Into Six Groups By Slope and Chloropigment to Suspended Volume Ratios With Theoretically Derived Values

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