Abstract

Retinal photographs taken with crossed polarizers in the input and recording light paths show a cross or brush pattern overlying the macula. Experiments were done indicating that this pattern is due to the birefringence in cone-photoreceptor outer segments. Haidinger’s brushes are also attributed to cone outer segments, but the effect is due to a combination of the dispersion in the birefringence and the dichroism of the outer segments. The objective, polarized-light retinal pattern is shown to be a useful clinical tool for diagnosing diseases affecting the macula.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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1980 (1)

R. A. Bone, Vision Res. 20, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).

1978 (2)

1974 (2)

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, J. C. Chein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

D. Kaplan, F. A. Bettelheim, Exp. Eye Res. 13, 219 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

D. I. Mitkokh, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 200 (1969), in Russian.

R. M. Tamorova, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 192 (1969), in Russian.

1968 (1)

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. Campbell, Nature London 218, 172 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (2)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. London 186, 175 (1966).
[PubMed]

D. Post, J. E. Gurland, Eye Res. 5, 286 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

L. L. Sloan, H. A. Naquin, Am. J. Ophthalmol 40, 393 (1955).
[PubMed]

1954 (2)

E. J. Naylor, A. Stanworth, J. Physiol. London 124, 543 (1954).
[PubMed]

H. W. Forster, Am. J. Opthalmol. 38, 601 (1954).

1953 (2)

H. L. DeVries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, Physica Utrecht 19, 419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

B. Goldberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 1221 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

M. Goldschmidt, Arch. Ophthalmol 44, 129 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1940 (1)

G. Boehm, Acta Opthalmol. 18, 143 (1940).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid Z. 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1894 (1)

F. Dimmer, Zentralbl. Physiol 7, 266 (1894).

Alvarado, J. A.

J. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971), p. 424.

Bargoot, F. G.

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettelheim, F. A.

D. Kaplan, F. A. Bettelheim, Exp. Eye Res. 13, 219 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehm, G.

G. Boehm, Acta Opthalmol. 18, 143 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, Vision Res. 20, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 651.

Brown, J. L.

J. L. Brown, “Light and Photometry,” in Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System, R. E. Records, Ed. (Harper & Row, Hagerstown, Md., 1979), Chap. 13, p. 338.

Campbell, C. E.

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. Campbell, Nature London 218, 172 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, E. P.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, J. C. Chein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chein, J. C.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, J. C. Chein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chisholm, I. H.

I. H. Chisholm, “Haidinger’s Brushes—A Photographic Record,” in Proceedings, Macular Workshop, Bath, England, 27 Apr.–3 May (1975), Sec. I-23.

Cope, W. T.

D’Anna, S. A.

S. A. D’Anna, B. F. Hochheimer, H. C. Joondeph, K. E. Graebner, “Fluorescein Angiography of the Heavily Pigmented Iris and New Dyes for Iris Angiograph,” accepted for publication in Arch. Ophthalmol.

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).

DeVries, H. L.

H. L. DeVries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, Physica Utrecht 19, 419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Dimmer, F.

F. Dimmer, Zentralbl. Physiol 7, 266 (1894).

Forster, H. W.

H. W. Forster, Am. J. Opthalmol. 38, 601 (1954).

Goldberg, B.

Goldschmidt, M.

M. Goldschmidt, Arch. Ophthalmol 44, 129 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Govardovskii, V. I.

F. G. Gribakin, V. I. Govardovskii, “The Role of the Photoreceptor Membrane in Photoreceptor Optics,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, Eds. (Springer, New York, 1975), Sec. B.2.
[CrossRef]

Graebner, K. E.

S. A. D’Anna, B. F. Hochheimer, H. C. Joondeph, K. E. Graebner, “Fluorescein Angiography of the Heavily Pigmented Iris and New Dyes for Iris Angiograph,” accepted for publication in Arch. Ophthalmol.

Gribakin, F. G.

F. G. Gribakin, V. I. Govardovskii, “The Role of the Photoreceptor Membrane in Photoreceptor Optics,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, Eds. (Springer, New York, 1975), Sec. B.2.
[CrossRef]

Gurland, J. E.

D. Post, J. E. Gurland, Eye Res. 5, 286 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hochheimer, B. F.

B. F. Hochheimer, Vision Res. 18, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. D’Anna, B. F. Hochheimer, H. C. Joondeph, K. E. Graebner, “Fluorescein Angiography of the Heavily Pigmented Iris and New Dyes for Iris Angiograph,” accepted for publication in Arch. Ophthalmol.

Hogan, J. J.

J. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971), p. 424.

Hogan, M. J.

M. J. Hogan, L. E. Zimmerman, Ophthalmic Pathology (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1962), p. 462.

Jagger, W. S.

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jielof, R.

H. L. DeVries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, Physica Utrecht 19, 419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Joondeph, H. C.

S. A. D’Anna, B. F. Hochheimer, H. C. Joondeph, K. E. Graebner, “Fluorescein Angiography of the Heavily Pigmented Iris and New Dyes for Iris Angiograph,” accepted for publication in Arch. Ophthalmol.

Kaplan, D.

D. Kaplan, F. A. Bettelheim, Exp. Eye Res. 13, 219 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, M. W.

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keedy, D. A.

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, J. C. Chein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laties, A. M.

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. Campbell, Nature London 218, 172 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebman, P. A.

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. Campbell, Nature London 218, 172 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McElroy, W. D.

H. H. Seliger, W. D. McElroy, Light: Physical and Biological Action (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 300.

Mitkokh, D. I.

D. I. Mitkokh, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 200 (1969), in Russian.

Naquin, H. A.

L. L. Sloan, H. A. Naquin, Am. J. Ophthalmol 40, 393 (1955).
[PubMed]

Naylor, E. J.

E. J. Naylor, A. Stanworth, J. Physiol. London 124, 543 (1954).
[PubMed]

Parker, J. S.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).

Post, D.

D. Post, J. E. Gurland, Eye Res. 5, 286 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W. J.

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid Z. 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, H. H.

H. H. Seliger, W. D. McElroy, Light: Physical and Biological Action (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 300.

Sloan, L. L.

L. L. Sloan, H. A. Naquin, Am. J. Ophthalmol 40, 393 (1955).
[PubMed]

Spoor, A.

H. L. DeVries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, Physica Utrecht 19, 419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Stanworth, A.

E. J. Naylor, A. Stanworth, J. Physiol. London 124, 543 (1954).
[PubMed]

Tamorova, R. M.

R. M. Tamorova, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 192 (1969), in Russian.

Von Helmholtz, H.

H. Von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. J. P. C. Southall, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1962).

Wald, G.

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. London 186, 175 (1966).
[PubMed]

R. A. Weale, “A New Way of Testing Macular (as Distinct from Foveal) Function,” in Proceedings, Macular Workshop, Bath, England, 27 Apr–3 May (1975), Sec. II-3.

Webb, R. H.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).

Weddell, J. E.

J. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971), p. 424.

Wolbarsht, M. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 651.

Yamanashi, B. S.

Zimmerman, L. E.

M. J. Hogan, L. E. Zimmerman, Ophthalmic Pathology (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1962), p. 462.

Acta Opthalmol. (1)

G. Boehm, Acta Opthalmol. 18, 143 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol (1)

L. L. Sloan, H. A. Naquin, Am. J. Ophthalmol 40, 393 (1955).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Opthalmol. (1)

H. W. Forster, Am. J. Opthalmol. 38, 601 (1954).

Arch. Ophthalmol (1)

M. Goldschmidt, Arch. Ophthalmol 44, 129 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

E. P. Chang, D. A. Keedy, J. C. Chein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 343, 615 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

D. Kaplan, F. A. Bettelheim, Exp. Eye Res. 13, 219 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye Res. (1)

D. Post, J. E. Gurland, Eye Res. 5, 286 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) (1)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. (Suppl) 19, 64 (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Physiol. London (2)

R. A. Weale, J. Physiol. London 186, 175 (1966).
[PubMed]

E. J. Naylor, A. Stanworth, J. Physiol. London 124, 543 (1954).
[PubMed]

Kolloid Z. (1)

W. J. Schmidt, Kolloid Z. 85, 137 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (2)

P. A. Liebman, W. S. Jagger, M. W. Kaplan, F. G. Bargoot, Nature London 251, 31 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Laties, P. A. Liebman, C. E. Campbell, Nature London 218, 172 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica Utrecht (1)

H. L. DeVries, A. Spoor, R. Jielof, Physica Utrecht 19, 419 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Probl. Fiziol. Opt. (2)

D. I. Mitkokh, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 200 (1969), in Russian.

R. M. Tamorova, Probl. Fiziol. Opt. 15, 192 (1969), in Russian.

Science (1)

G. Wald, Science 101, 653 (1945).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (2)

R. A. Bone, Vision Res. 20, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Hochheimer, Vision Res. 18, 19 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentralbl. Physiol (1)

F. Dimmer, Zentralbl. Physiol 7, 266 (1894).

Other (10)

M. J. Hogan, L. E. Zimmerman, Ophthalmic Pathology (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1962), p. 462.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959), p. 651.

H. H. Seliger, W. D. McElroy, Light: Physical and Biological Action (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 300.

F. G. Gribakin, V. I. Govardovskii, “The Role of the Photoreceptor Membrane in Photoreceptor Optics,” in Photoreceptor Optics, A. W. Snyder, R. Menzel, Eds. (Springer, New York, 1975), Sec. B.2.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hogan, J. A. Alvarado, J. E. Weddell, Histology of the Human Eye (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971), p. 424.

S. A. D’Anna, B. F. Hochheimer, H. C. Joondeph, K. E. Graebner, “Fluorescein Angiography of the Heavily Pigmented Iris and New Dyes for Iris Angiograph,” accepted for publication in Arch. Ophthalmol.

J. L. Brown, “Light and Photometry,” in Physiology of the Human Eye and Visual System, R. E. Records, Ed. (Harper & Row, Hagerstown, Md., 1979), Chap. 13, p. 338.

I. H. Chisholm, “Haidinger’s Brushes—A Photographic Record,” in Proceedings, Macular Workshop, Bath, England, 27 Apr.–3 May (1975), Sec. I-23.

H. Von Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. J. P. C. Southall, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1962).

R. A. Weale, “A New Way of Testing Macular (as Distinct from Foveal) Function,” in Proceedings, Macular Workshop, Bath, England, 27 Apr–3 May (1975), Sec. II-3.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Retinal photograph taken with a Zeiss fundus camera. Polarizers were inserted in both the input and output light path. A brushlike pattern can be seen over the macular area of the retina.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Similar photograph to that of Fig. 1 except that the polarizers were rotated so that they were aligned with the fast and slow axes of the cornea. This produces a cross pattern over the macula.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross pattern can be seen for any polarization vector rotation over the macula of a monkey retina whose lens and cornea were removed and replaced with a flat glass plate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Areas densitometered to infer pattern contrast are indicated by the white dots.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Density differences between the light and dark areas of the photographed polarization pattern plotted vs wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization pattern at 500 nm in a normal subject.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization pattern at 650 nm in a normal subject.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarization pattern at 500 nm in a color-blind protonope.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Polarization pattern at 650 nm in a color-blind protonope.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Birefringence spectrum (●) and dichroism spectrum (▲) of a rod outer segment for light passing perpendicular to the axis of the outer segment. The dichroism spectrum is the difference between the perpendicular and parallel components (Liebman et al.10).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Polarized-light retinal photograph of a patient diagnosed as having early macular degeneration. Note the lack of any macular cross or bow-tie pattern.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Wavelength Dependent Differences in Polarization Pattern Between a Light and Dark Adapted Eye

Tables Icon

Table II Photographed Patterns vs Normal and Diseased Eyes

Metrics