Abstract

The technique of normalizing airborne lidar measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence by the water Raman scattering signal is investigated for laser-excitation wavelengths of 480 and 532 nm using a semianalytic Monte Carlo methodology (SALMON). The signal-integration depth for chlorophyll fluorescence, Z90,F, is found to be insensitive to excitation wavelength and ranges from a maximum of 4.5 m in clearest waters to <1 m at a chlorophyll concentration of 20 μg/liter. For excitation at 532 nm, the signal-integration depth for Raman scattering, Z90,R, is comparable to Z90,F. For excitation at 480 nm, Z90,R is four times as large as Z90,F in clearest waters but nearly equivalent at chlorophyll concentrations >2–3 μg/liter. Absolute signal levels are stronger with excitation at 480 nm than with excitation at 532 nm, but this advantage must be weighed against potential ambiguities resulting from different integration depths for the fluorescence and Raman scattering signals in clearer waters. To the precision of the simulations, Raman normalization produces effectively linear response to chlorophyll concentration for both excitation wavelengths.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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