Abstract

The nature of resonance phenomena in atomic and molecular systems is reviewed along with a discussion of the utilization of synchrotron radiation in studying resonance phenomena. The effects of autoionization and shape resonances on the branching ratios and asymmetry parameters for several systems are discussed. The potential and current status of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and ion coincidence techniques are discussed.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Kunz, Ed. Synchrotron Radiation; Technique and Applications, (Springer, Berlin, 1979), see particularly the chapters by Codling and by Koch and Sonntag.
  2. H. Winick, S. Doniach, Ed. Synchrotron Radiation Research (Plenum, New York, 1980), see chapter by M. Krause, pp. 101–151.
  3. J. B. West, Appl. Opt. 19, 4063 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. M. Guyon, I. Nenner, Appl. Opt. 19, 4068 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Schmidt, Appl. Opt. 19, 4080 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I: Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1980).
  7. M. A. Biondi, A. Herzenberg, C. E. Kuyatt, Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 516 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Astrophys. J. 141, 369 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Fano, J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 441 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. R. Samson, “Atomic Photoionization,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 31, W. Mehlhorn, Ed. (Springer, Berlin), in press.
  13. J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979).
  14. T. Rescigno, V. McKoy, B. Schneider, Electron Molecule and Photon Molecule Collisions (Plenum, New York, 1978).
  15. M. Raoult, C. Jungen, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3388 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Codling, R. P. Madden, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3935 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. M. Dehmer, W. Chupka, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4525 (1975); W. S. Watson, J. Moiton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Codling et al., J. Phys. B 14, 657 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 35, 1133 (1930); Phys. Rev. 36, 789 (1930).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Parr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 22 (1981); J. B. West, K. Codling, A. C. Parr, D. L. Ederer, B. E. Cole, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 14, 1791 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. See discussion in Ref. 12. For application in synchrotron radiation see Ref. 4.
  22. R. Stockbauer, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2108 (1979); W. B. Peatman, B. Gotcher, P. Gurtler, E. E. Koch, V. Saile, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2089 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. M. Rosentock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38, 607 (1952).
  24. D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, S. P. McGlynn, J. Phys. B 13, 167 (1981).
  27. See Ref. 6 and references therein.
  28. See P. W. Langhoff in Ref. 13 and J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill in Ref. 13 for a current theoretical picture of shape resonance phenomena.
  29. R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978); L. C. Lee, E. Phillips, D. L. Judge, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1237 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, S. Wallace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1005 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. L. Gardner, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spec. 13, 7 (1918).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Krummacher, V. Schmidt, F. Wuilleumier, J. Phys, B: 13, 3993 (1980) (also a review of the N2 problem).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. E. Cole et al.J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6308 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Dill, J. L. Dehmer, Argonne; private communication.
  38. P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).
  39. T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  40. E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  41. For a review and data on storage rings in operation, see Refs. 2 and 3.
  42. T. Masuka, J. A. R. Samson, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 623 (1980).
  43. E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (6)

M. Raoult, C. Jungen, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3388 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling et al., J. Phys. B 14, 657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 22 (1981); J. B. West, K. Codling, A. C. Parr, D. L. Ederer, B. E. Cole, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 14, 1791 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, S. P. McGlynn, J. Phys. B 13, 167 (1981).

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (8)

J. B. West, Appl. Opt. 19, 4063 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Guyon, I. Nenner, Appl. Opt. 19, 4068 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Schmidt, Appl. Opt. 19, 4080 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Masuka, J. A. R. Samson, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 623 (1980).

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Krummacher, V. Schmidt, F. Wuilleumier, J. Phys, B: 13, 3993 (1980) (also a review of the N2 problem).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Cole et al.J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6308 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

1979 (5)

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, S. Wallace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1005 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2108 (1979); W. B. Peatman, B. Gotcher, P. Gurtler, E. E. Koch, V. Saile, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2089 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, A. Herzenberg, C. E. Kuyatt, Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978); L. C. Lee, E. Phillips, D. L. Judge, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. M. Dehmer, W. Chupka, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4525 (1975); W. S. Watson, J. Moiton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

U. Fano, J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 441 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Astrophys. J. 141, 369 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3935 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 516 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. M. Rosentock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38, 607 (1952).

1930 (1)

J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 35, 1133 (1930); Phys. Rev. 36, 789 (1930).
[CrossRef]

1918 (1)

J. L. Gardner, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spec. 13, 7 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Baig, M. A.

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, S. P. McGlynn, J. Phys. B 13, 167 (1981).

Berkowitz, J.

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979).

Biondi, M. A.

M. A. Biondi, A. Herzenberg, C. E. Kuyatt, Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, A. M.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cederbaum, L. S.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chupka, W.

P. M. Dehmer, W. Chupka, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4525 (1975); W. S. Watson, J. Moiton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

K. Codling et al., J. Phys. B 14, 657 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Astrophys. J. 141, 369 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3935 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 516 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Cole et al.J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6308 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Connerade, J. P.

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, S. P. McGlynn, J. Phys. B 13, 167 (1981).

Cooper, J. W.

U. Fano, J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 441 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dehmer, J. L.

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, S. Wallace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1005 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Dill, J. L. Dehmer, Argonne; private communication.

See P. W. Langhoff in Ref. 13 and J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill in Ref. 13 for a current theoretical picture of shape resonance phenomena.

Dehmer, P. M.

P. M. Dehmer, W. Chupka, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4525 (1975); W. S. Watson, J. Moiton, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 103 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dill, D.

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, S. Wallace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1005 (1979).
[CrossRef]

See P. W. Langhoff in Ref. 13 and J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill in Ref. 13 for a current theoretical picture of shape resonance phenomena.

D. Dill, J. L. Dehmer, Argonne; private communication.

Domcke, W.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dutuit, I.

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

Eastman, D. E.

E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ederer, D. L.

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, H.

H. M. Rosentock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38, 607 (1952).

Fano, U.

U. Fano, J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 441 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Frost, D. C.

D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. L.

J. L. Gardner, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spec. 13, 7 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, T.

T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Gustafsson, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1481 (1978); L. C. Lee, E. Phillips, D. L. Judge, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1237 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, P. M.

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

P. M. Guyon, I. Nenner, Appl. Opt. 19, 4068 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herring, F. G.

D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I: Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1980).

Herzenberg, A.

M. A. Biondi, A. Herzenberg, C. E. Kuyatt, Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

J. J. Hopfield, Phys. Rev. 35, 1133 (1930); Phys. Rev. 36, 789 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

Jackson, K. H.

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jason, A. J.

A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jungen, C.

M. Raoult, C. Jungen, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3388 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kban, I.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, S.

S. Krummacher, V. Schmidt, F. Wuilleumier, J. Phys, B: 13, 3993 (1980) (also a review of the N2 problem).
[CrossRef]

Kuyatt, C. E.

M. A. Biondi, A. Herzenberg, C. E. Kuyatt, Phys. Today 32, 44 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Langhoff, P. W.

See P. W. Langhoff in Ref. 13 and J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill in Ref. 13 for a current theoretical picture of shape resonance phenomena.

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, D. L. Ederer, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. 177, 136 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Astrophys. J. 141, 369 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. Codling, R. P. Madden, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 3935 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 516 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Masuka, T.

T. Masuka, J. A. R. Samson, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 623 (1980).

McCulloh, K. E.

A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, C. A.

D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McGlynn, S. P.

J. P. Connerade, M. A. Baig, S. P. McGlynn, J. Phys. B 13, 167 (1981).

McKoy, V.

T. Rescigno, V. McKoy, B. Schneider, Electron Molecule and Photon Molecule Collisions (Plenum, New York, 1978).

Morin, P.

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

Nenner, I.

P. Morin, I. Nenner, P. M. Guyon, I. Dutuit, K. Ito, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 605 (1980).

P. M. Guyon, I. Nenner, Appl. Opt. 19, 4068 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parr, A. C.

A. C. Parr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 22 (1981); J. B. West, K. Codling, A. C. Parr, D. L. Ederer, B. E. Cole, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 14, 1791 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Plummer, E. W.

E. W. Plummer, T. Gustafsson, W. Gudat, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Poliakoff, E. D.

E. D. Poliakoff, J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill, A. C. Parr, K. H. Jackson, R. W. Zare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Raoult, M.

M. Raoult, C. Jungen, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3388 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rescigno, T.

T. Rescigno, V. McKoy, B. Schneider, Electron Molecule and Photon Molecule Collisions (Plenum, New York, 1978).

Richardson, N. V.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rosentock, H. M.

H. M. Rosentock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38, 607 (1952).

Samson, J. A. R.

T. Masuka, J. A. R. Samson, J. Chim. Phys. Phys. Chim. Biol. 77, 623 (1980).

J. L. Gardner, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spec. 13, 7 (1918).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, “Atomic Photoionization,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 31, W. Mehlhorn, Ed. (Springer, Berlin), in press.

Schmidt, V.

V. Schmidt, Appl. Opt. 19, 4080 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krummacher, V. Schmidt, F. Wuilleumier, J. Phys, B: 13, 3993 (1980) (also a review of the N2 problem).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, B.

T. Rescigno, V. McKoy, B. Schneider, Electron Molecule and Photon Molecule Collisions (Plenum, New York, 1978).

Stenhouse, Z. A.

D. C. Frost, F. G. Herring, C. A. McDowell, Z. A. Stenhouse, Chem. Phys. Lett. 4, 533 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stockbauer, R.

J. B. West, A. C. Parr, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, R. Stockbauer, J. L. Dehmer, J. Phys. B 13, L105 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr, A. J. Jason, R. Stockbauer, K. E. McCulloh, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 319 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2108 (1979); W. B. Peatman, B. Gotcher, P. Gurtler, E. E. Koch, V. Saile, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2089 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockbauer, B. E. Cole, D. L. Ederer, J. B. West, A. C. Parr, J. L. Dehmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 757 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Unwin, R.

R. Unwin, I. Kban, N. V. Richardson, A. M. Bradshaw, L. S. Cederbaum, W. Domcke, Chem. Phys. Lett 77, 242 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wahrhaftig, A. L.

H. M. Rosentock, M. B. Wallenstein, A. L. Wahrhaftig, H. Eyring, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 38, 607 (1952).

Wallace, S.

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Other (11)

J. A. R. Samson, “Atomic Photoionization,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 31, W. Mehlhorn, Ed. (Springer, Berlin), in press.

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979).

T. Rescigno, V. McKoy, B. Schneider, Electron Molecule and Photon Molecule Collisions (Plenum, New York, 1978).

See discussion in Ref. 12. For application in synchrotron radiation see Ref. 4.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Structure and Molecular Spectra I: Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1980).

See Ref. 6 and references therein.

See P. W. Langhoff in Ref. 13 and J. L. Dehmer, D. Dill in Ref. 13 for a current theoretical picture of shape resonance phenomena.

D. Dill, J. L. Dehmer, Argonne; private communication.

C. Kunz, Ed. Synchrotron Radiation; Technique and Applications, (Springer, Berlin, 1979), see particularly the chapters by Codling and by Koch and Sonntag.

H. Winick, S. Doniach, Ed. Synchrotron Radiation Research (Plenum, New York, 1980), see chapter by M. Krause, pp. 101–151.

For a review and data on storage rings in operation, see Refs. 2 and 3.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

External view of the rotatable photoelectron spectrometer used at NBS for angle-resolved variable-wavelength photoelectron spectroscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two photoelectron spectra of O2 at 593 Å taken at 0° and 90° with respect to polarization of the light. The ions left in the ground electronic state with the vibrational excitation shown. Change in the relative heights of the same vibrational peak in the two spectra indicates different βs for the various vibrational levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption profile at the 2s2p1P1 resonance in He. Dots are the experimental values and the solid line is the theoretical fit with Eq. (4) (Ref. 9).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the energy levels of He and transitions to levels that can lead to autoionization. The 2s2p level is, in the single electron description, a state of neutral He, which is the first member of a series converging on the He+:n = 2 state. This state lies above the ionization limit of He+ (1s), hence it decays via autoionization into the continuum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical resonance profile fit to observed window absorption resonance due to the 3s23p61S0 → 3s3p64p1P1 transition in Ar. is the reduced energy parameter in (4) and the vertical scale is the cross section normalized to the background total cross section.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Potential energy diagram of O 2 + used to show types of transition possible in molecular photoionization. Curve marked X is the ground state of the ion, a, A, b, B, c are excited ionic states, and the curve marked O 2 * is an excited neutral state that can autoionize.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectrum of O2 in the 500–600-Å region showing autoionization structure with asymmetric window-type resonances.16 (This is a positive print, therefore black denotes absorption.)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Branching ratios for various vibrational levels of the O 2 + ground state extending over the window resonance region of 570–600 Å. (refer to Fig. 5.) Note that the v = 1 vibrational level is the most intense. Symbols are defined on the figure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Asymmetry parameters β for the v = 0 through v = 5 vibrational levels of the ground state of O 2 + in the 570–600-Å window resonance region.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

High-resolution (0.4 Å) branching ratios for the first four vibrational levels of N 2 + in the 710–730-Å region. Autoionization lines are the absorption and window series converging on the v = 0 level of the B 2 Σ u + state of N 2 +. See Ref. 20 for further discussion. Open and closed dots refer to two separate runs.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Asymmetry parameters for v = 0 through v = 3 levels of the ground state of N 2 + in the 710-Å region.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Threshold photoelectron spectrum for molecular nitrogen. Bottom portion is the threshold photoelectron spectrum and at the top is a histogram of the Franck-Condon factors. Note the anomalous intensity ratios.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photoelectron spectra of propyne from Ref. 23. Vertical scale is total electron counts. Horizontal scale is electron kinetic energy adjusted to show the binding energy of the electrons. This PES spectrum was taken with a He 584-Å excitation source.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

This figure gives (A) threshold photoelectron spectra as a function of energy, (B) data obtained in the threshold photoelectron–photoion coincidence experiment that gives the breakdown curves, and (C) a computer fit to (B) showing smooth breakdown curves. Region between 11.6 and 12.8 eV has been left off the computer fit due to uncertainties in interpretation.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Schematic idealization of the electronic potential for a hypothetical diatomic molecule, which shows the origin of a shape resonance. For high angular momentum, the centrifugal term combined with electron screening effects can make the effective potential positive, resulting in a potential barrier.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Branching ratios as a function of energy for production of the V = 0,1 levels of N 2 + X 2 Σ g + by photoionization of N2: ●, Ref. 32; ▲, Ref. 33; —, theory from Ref. 31; - - -, Franck-Condon factor of 9.3% (D. L. Albritton, 1979; private communication).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Vibrational branching ratios of CO+X2+ state resulting from photoionization of the CO ground state. Branching ratios are normalized to the V = 1 level. Structure above 21 eV is thought to be due to a shape resonance. Data from Ref. 35.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Asymmetry parameter β for the first four vibrational levels of the CO+ ground state resulting from photoionization of the CO ground state. Data from Ref. 36.

Equations (5)

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A B + h ν ( ) A B + + e - ( E , θ )
A B * A B + e _ ( E , θ ) ,
d σ v d Ω = σ v 4 π { 1 + β 4 [ 3 P cos ( 2 θ ) + 1 ] } ,
d N v d Ω = N v 4 π [ 1 + β 4 ( 3 P cos 2 θ + 1 ) ] .
( q + ) 2 1 + 2 ,

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