Abstract

Coupling efficiency between a laser diode and a single-mode fiber can be greatly increased by using a lensing scheme to match their respective modes. We propose a simple method to selectively etch a fiber end to produce a conical lens whose base coincides with the fiber core. If needed, this lens may be fire polished or arc melted into a hemispherical lens of the same diameter. We present a general theoretical design of both these lenses. We find that high coupling efficiency is expected in cases of practical interest. Initial experimental results are reported in which coupling losses as low as 3 dB were obtained.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Maeda, I. Ikushima, K. Nagano, M. Tanaka, H. Naskashima, R. Itoh, Appl. Opt. 16, 1966 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 955 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kuwahara, H. Furuta, Appl. Opt. 19, 2578 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 81 (1974).
  6. G. Khoe, “New Coupling Technique for Single Mode Optical Fiber Transmission Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 6.1.
  7. Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference IOOC (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), paper TuL1.
  9. L. O. Svaasan, S. Hopland, A. P. Grande, “Splicing of Optical Fibers with Selective Etching Techniques,” in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genoa, 1978.
  10. J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 231.

1981

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Kuwahara, H. Furuta, Appl. Opt. 19, 2578 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1975

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 81 (1974).

Arditty, H. J.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. G.

L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 81 (1974).

Devinter, J. C.

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, H.

Grande, A. P.

L. O. Svaasan, S. Hopland, A. P. Grande, “Splicing of Optical Fibers with Selective Etching Techniques,” in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genoa, 1978.

Hopland, S.

L. O. Svaasan, S. Hopland, A. P. Grande, “Splicing of Optical Fibers with Selective Etching Techniques,” in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genoa, 1978.

Ikushima, I.

Itoh, R.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kayoun, P.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.

G. Khoe, “New Coupling Technique for Single Mode Optical Fiber Transmission Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 6.1.

Kimura, T.

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, H.

Maeda, M.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 231.

Murakami, Y.

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

Nahory, R. E.

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Naskashima, H.

Papuchon, M.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Puech, C.

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, H.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference IOOC (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), paper TuL1.

Sakai, J.

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Jun-Ichi

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M. V.

L. G. Cohen, M. V. Schneider, Appl. Opt. 13, 81 (1974).

Seki, N.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference IOOC (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), paper TuL1.

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, T.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Svaasan, L. O.

L. O. Svaasan, S. Hopland, A. P. Grande, “Splicing of Optical Fibers with Selective Etching Techniques,” in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genoa, 1978.

Tanaka, M.

Weidel, E.

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Jun-Ichi

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference IOOC (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), paper TuL1.

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

M. Saruwatari, T. Sugie, Electron. Lett. 16, 955 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, R. E. Nahory, L. W. Stulz, J. C. Devinter, Electron. Lett. 17, 318 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Kayoun, C. Puech, M. Papuchon, H. J. Arditty, Electron. Lett. 17, 400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1059 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jun-Ichi Yamada, Y. Murakami, Jun-Ichi Sakai, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1067 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Sakaguchi, N. Seki, S. Yamamoto, “High Efficiency Coupling from Laser Diodes into Single Mode Fibers with Quadrangular Pyramid Shaped Hemielliptical Ends,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference IOOC (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), paper TuL1.

L. O. Svaasan, S. Hopland, A. P. Grande, “Splicing of Optical Fibers with Selective Etching Techniques,” in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genoa, 1978.

G. Khoe, “New Coupling Technique for Single Mode Optical Fiber Transmission Systems,” in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 6.1.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972), p. 231.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemically etched conical lenses: (a) single-mode fiber-doping profile; (b) typical etched cone; (c) shallow, somewhat rounded, truncated cone; (d) conical lens h/W = 0.4; and (e) conical lens h/W = 0.8.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial parameters for coupling efficiency calculation: (a) conical lens, and (b) hemispherical lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Improvement in coupling efficiency using an optimum conical lens over butt coupling as a function of laser-to-fiber spot-size ratio in a symmetrical beam case. Also shown are optimum values for h/W and H/W. Coupling efficiency for an ideal, infinitely wide, hemispherical lens is shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Butt-coupling efficiency as a function of ellipticity ratio in the case where the geometrical mean of the beam spot size equals the fiber spot size.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Improvement in coupling efficiency using an optimum hemispherical lens whose width equals the fiber core over butt coupling as a function of laser-to-fiber spot-size ratio in a symmetrical beam case. Also shown are optimum values for rL/W and H/W. Coupling efficiency for an ideal, infinitely wide, hemispherical lens is shown for comparison.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E z = f z g z ,
f z = ( 1 + i λ z π a 2 ) - 1 / 2 exp { - x 2 a 2 [ 1 + i λ z / π a 2 1 + ( λ z / π a 2 ) 2 ] } ,
T 1 = exp [ i 2 π h λ ( n - 1 W x 2 + y 2 - 1 ) ] for x 2 + y 2 W ,
T 2 = exp ( - i 2 π h λ ) for x 2 + y 2 W ,
E = E H T .
= exp ( - x 2 + y 2 c 2 ) ,
η = | 0 w d y 0 w 2 - y 2 E H T 1 d x + w d y w 2 - w 2 E H T 2 d x | 2 0 E 0 2 d x d y 0 2 d x d y .
M = 4 a b ( a + b ) 2 .
T 1 = exp { - i 2 π λ [ r L - n r L 2 - W 2 + ( n - 1 ) r L 2 - ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] } for x 2 + y 2 W ,
T 2 = exp [ - i 2 π λ ( r L - r L 2 - W 2 ) ] for x 2 + y 2 W .

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