Abstract

A method is presented for choosing high-contrast sets of colors for additive color mixers (e.g., CRT). The method is based on data about target-location performance of human observers and adapts the color sets to the gamut of the color processor in use. The method produces any specified number of colors spread as far from each other as possible in color space to maximize contrast. Applications of high-contrast sets of colors are indicated, illustrative results are presented and discussed, and variations of the method are suggested.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. L. Kelly, Color Eng. 3, 26 (1965).
  2. E. C. Carter, R. C. Carter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 723 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Figure 1 is from R. C. Carter, Visual Search with Color (Pennsylvania State U., 1979) and is based on the data of L. G. Williams, “A Study of Visual Search Using Eye Movement Recordings,” Honeywell 12009-IR (Honeywell Systems and Research Center, Minneapolis, Minn., 1967).
  4. A. Robertson, Color Res. Appl. 2, 7 (1977).
  5. W. W. Farley, J. C. Gutmann, Digital Image Processing Systems and an Approach to the Display of Colors of Specified Chrominance (Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1980).
  6. K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 627 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A fortran computer program which implements this method is available from the authors. This work was supported by the Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif.; Ross Pepper, project monitor.

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

A. Robertson, Color Res. Appl. 2, 7 (1977).

1965 (1)

K. L. Kelly, Color Eng. 3, 26 (1965).

1943 (1)

Carter, E. C.

Carter, R. C.

E. C. Carter, R. C. Carter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 723 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figure 1 is from R. C. Carter, Visual Search with Color (Pennsylvania State U., 1979) and is based on the data of L. G. Williams, “A Study of Visual Search Using Eye Movement Recordings,” Honeywell 12009-IR (Honeywell Systems and Research Center, Minneapolis, Minn., 1967).

Farley, W. W.

W. W. Farley, J. C. Gutmann, Digital Image Processing Systems and an Approach to the Display of Colors of Specified Chrominance (Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1980).

Gutmann, J. C.

W. W. Farley, J. C. Gutmann, Digital Image Processing Systems and an Approach to the Display of Colors of Specified Chrominance (Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1980).

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, Color Eng. 3, 26 (1965).

K. L. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 627 (1943).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, A.

A. Robertson, Color Res. Appl. 2, 7 (1977).

Color Eng. (1)

K. L. Kelly, Color Eng. 3, 26 (1965).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

A. Robertson, Color Res. Appl. 2, 7 (1977).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (3)

A fortran computer program which implements this method is available from the authors. This work was supported by the Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif.; Ross Pepper, project monitor.

Figure 1 is from R. C. Carter, Visual Search with Color (Pennsylvania State U., 1979) and is based on the data of L. G. Williams, “A Study of Visual Search Using Eye Movement Recordings,” Honeywell 12009-IR (Honeywell Systems and Research Center, Minneapolis, Minn., 1967).

W. W. Farley, J. C. Gutmann, Digital Image Processing Systems and an Approach to the Display of Colors of Specified Chrominance (Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1980).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative fixation rate3 as a function of CIE L*u*v* color difference between targets and surrounding items. Relative fixation rate is the frequency of looking at items of the wrong color relative to (divided by) the frequency of looking at items of the target’s color. Points in the figure are means, with bars depicting plus or minus one standard deviation of the mean.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of Some High-Contrast Sets of Color

Tables Icon

Table II Example of a Set of Six Colors with a Maximized Minimum Color Difference

Metrics