Abstract

Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric gases and temperature made using topographic targets to provide the backscattered signal are subject to errors from the differential spectral reflectance of the target materials. The magnitude of this effect is estimated for a number of DIAL measurements reported in the literature. Calculations are presented for several topographic targets. In general the effect on a DIAL measurement increases directly with increasing wavelength and laser line separation, and inversely with differential absorption coefficient and distance to the target. The effect can be minimized by using tunable or isotope lasers to reduce the laser line separation or by using additional reference wavelengths to determine the surface differential spectral reflectance.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Appl. Opt. 17, 814 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Appl. Opt. 17, 3555 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 5, 452 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 402(1980).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. R. Murray, D. D. Powell, J. E. van der Laan, Appl. Opt. 19, 1794 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. Defeo, Appl. Opt. 19, 3282 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. B. Grant, “Measurement of Ozone Transport from the Los Angeles Basin Using the Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer and a Dasibi Ozone Monitor,” Final Report 5030-512, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology for the California Air Resources Board (1981).
  13. W. B. Grant, “Remote Measurement of Methane Using a Single-Ended He–Ne Laser System,” to be submitted for publication.
  14. J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).
  15. J. C. Petheram, Appl. Opt. 20, 3941 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Boscher, F. Lehman, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflexionsspektroskopie mit Hilfe der CO2-Lastertechnik,” Report 01 QS 039-AK/WF/RT 1078-3.2 (Battelle Institute eV, Frankfurt, W. Germanv.1980).
  17. M. S. Shumate, S. Lundqvist, U. Persson, S. T. Eng.Appl. Opt. 21, 2386 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. W. A. Hovis, Appl. Opt. 5, 815 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).
  21. W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds., The Infrared Handbook (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 3–90.
  22. W. L. Wolfe, Ed., Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), p. 85.
  23. Ref. 21, pp. 3–105.
  24. E. D. McAlister, U. California; private communication (1951–1952).
  25. Ref. 22, p. 83.
  26. W. L. Starr, E. R. Streed, A. E. Funai, “Principles of Infrared Camouflage for Low Temperature Targets,” Tech. Note N148 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Research and Evaluation Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. (1953).
  27. W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. J. Brassington, Appl. Opt. 20, 3774 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.
  31. L. D. Kaplan, U. Md.; private communication (1981).
  32. R. J. Brewer, C. W. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 17, 3746 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).
  35. C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O'Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
    [Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (4)

1980 (5)

1978 (4)

1976 (2)

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[Crossref]

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Baumgartner, R. A.

Beck, R.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[Crossref]

Boscher, J.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

J. Boscher, F. Lehman, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflexionsspektroskopie mit Hilfe der CO2-Lastertechnik,” Report 01 QS 039-AK/WF/RT 1078-3.2 (Battelle Institute eV, Frankfurt, W. Germanv.1980).

Bradley, L. C.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O'Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[Crossref]

Brassington, P. J.

Brewer, R. J.

Bruce, C. W.

Bufton, J. L.

C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.

Byer, R. L.

DeFeo, W. E.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 402(1980).
[Crossref]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. Defeo, Appl. Opt. 19, 3282 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Earing, D.

V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

Endemann, M.

Eng., S. T.

Englisch, W.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Freed, C.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O'Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[Crossref]

Funai, A. E.

W. L. Starr, E. R. Streed, A. E. Funai, “Principles of Infrared Camouflage for Low Temperature Targets,” Tech. Note N148 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Research and Evaluation Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. (1953).

Garbuny, M.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[Crossref]

Grant, W. B.

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, “Measurement of Ozone Transport from the Los Angeles Basin Using the Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer and a Dasibi Ozone Monitor,” Final Report 5030-512, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology for the California Air Resources Board (1981).

W. B. Grant, “Remote Measurement of Methane Using a Single-Ended He–Ne Laser System,” to be submitted for publication.

Gurs, K.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hawlev, J. G.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[Crossref]

Hawley, J. G.

Henningsen, T.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hovis, W. A.

Kaplan, L. D.

L. D. Kaplan, U. Md.; private communication (1981).

C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 402(1980).
[Crossref]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. Defeo, Appl. Opt. 19, 3282 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korb, C. L.

C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.

Ladd, S.

V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

Leeman, V.

V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

Lehman, F.

J. Boscher, F. Lehman, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflexionsspektroskopie mit Hilfe der CO2-Lastertechnik,” Report 01 QS 039-AK/WF/RT 1078-3.2 (Battelle Institute eV, Frankfurt, W. Germanv.1980).

Liston, E. M.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lundqvist, S.

McAlister, E. D.

E. D. McAlister, U. California; private communication (1951–1952).

McClenny, W. A.

R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).

McDougal, D. S.

Menyuk, N.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 402(1980).
[Crossref]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. Defeo, Appl. Opt. 19, 3282 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menzies, R. T.

Morgan, D. R.

R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).

Murray, E. R.

O'Donnell, R. G.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O'Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[Crossref]

Patty, R. R.

R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).

Persson, U.

Petheram, J. C.

Powell, D. D.

Proctor, E. K.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rasmussen, G. N.

R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).

Robbins, R. C.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

Shumate, M. S.

Starr, W. L.

W. L. Starr, E. R. Streed, A. E. Funai, “Principles of Infrared Camouflage for Low Temperature Targets,” Tech. Note N148 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Research and Evaluation Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. (1953).

Streed, E. R.

W. L. Starr, E. R. Streed, A. E. Funai, “Principles of Infrared Camouflage for Low Temperature Targets,” Tech. Note N148 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Research and Evaluation Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. (1953).

van der Laan, J. E.

Vincent, R.

V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

Vincent, R. K.

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[Crossref]

Weng, C. Y.

C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.

Wiesemann, W.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

Appl. Opt. (11)

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawlev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[Crossref]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, E. M. Liston, R. C. Robbins, E. K. Proctor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 550 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[Crossref]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 402(1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O'Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

V. Leeman, D. Earing, R. Vincent, S. Ladd, “The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation,” NASA CR-31650-24-T (Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds., The Infrared Handbook (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 3–90.

W. L. Wolfe, Ed., Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965), p. 85.

Ref. 21, pp. 3–105.

E. D. McAlister, U. California; private communication (1951–1952).

Ref. 22, p. 83.

W. L. Starr, E. R. Streed, A. E. Funai, “Principles of Infrared Camouflage for Low Temperature Targets,” Tech. Note N148 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Research and Evaluation Laboratory, Port Hueneme, Calif. (1953).

W. B. Grant, “Measurement of Ozone Transport from the Los Angeles Basin Using the Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer and a Dasibi Ozone Monitor,” Final Report 5030-512, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology for the California Air Resources Board (1981).

W. B. Grant, “Remote Measurement of Methane Using a Single-Ended He–Ne Laser System,” to be submitted for publication.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980).

R. R. Patty, G. N. Rasmussen, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, NERC; private communication (1973).

J. Boscher, F. Lehman, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflexionsspektroskopie mit Hilfe der CO2-Lastertechnik,” Report 01 QS 039-AK/WF/RT 1078-3.2 (Battelle Institute eV, Frankfurt, W. Germanv.1980).

C. L. Korb, L. D. Kaplan, J. L. Bufton, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide,” in Proceedings, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), paper H-1.

L. D. Kaplan, U. Md.; private communication (1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Differential spectral reflectance (DSR) vs wavelength for silica sand using the reflectance data of Ref. 18. This curve is the derivative of the reflectance curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential spectral reflectance vs wavelength for Barnes fine silt loam, South Dakota, using the data of Refs. 20 and 21.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential spectral reflectance vs wavelength for water using the data of Refs. 23 and 24.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential spectral reflectance vs wavelength for asphalt road material using the data of Refs. 25 and 26.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Calculated Errors for DIAL Measurements Using Topographic Targets

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P r = P t ρ A η cos ( θ ) π R 2 exp [ 2 ( α C + β ) R ] ,
CR = ln ( P / P ) + ln ( ρ / ρ ) + 2 ( β β ) R + ln ( η / η ) 2 ( α α ) ,
P = P r / P t .

Metrics