Abstract

The differential reflectance of several naturally occurring and man-made materials at CO2 laser wavelengths is determined. The computer-controlled measurement system has two CO2 lasers and determines the differential reflectance of each material by measuring the ratio of the reflected signals at two wavelengths simultaneously. These results can be used to improve the accuracy of air pollution measurement systems which derive their return signals from topographic targets.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, “The Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer: A New Instrument for Remote Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gases,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 420.
  3. W. Wiesemann, “Weiterentwicklung des DIALEX-Gerätes zum funktionstuchtigen Ingenieurmodell und Flugerprobung im DFVLR-Fluzeug Typ DO 28,” Report BF-R-63.545-1 (Battelle Institute e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1979).
  4. J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.
  5. R. J. P. Lyon, “Evaluation of Infrared Spectrophotometry for Compositional Analysis of Lunar and Planetary Soils,” NASA Rep. NASA Tech. Note 1871 (1963).
  6. L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. P. Lyon, J. W. Patterson, “Airborne Geological Mapping Using Infrared Emission Spectra,” in Proceedings, Sixth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1969), Vol. 1, p. 527.
  9. A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. B. Kahle, D. P. Madura, J. M. Soha, Appl. Opt. 19, 2279 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3719 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Boscher, F. Lehmann, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflextionsspektros-kopie mit Hilfe der CO2 Lasertechnik,” Report BF-R-64.028-2 (Battelle Institut e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1980).
  14. B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kronstein, R. J. Kraushaar, R. E. Deacle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 458 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. H. Suits, “Natural Sources,” in The Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds. (Office of Naval Research, U. S. Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 3–100.
  17. A. F. H. Goetz, L. C. Rowan, Science 211, 781 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

1980 (3)

A. B. Kahle, D. P. Madura, J. M. Soha, Appl. Opt. 19, 2279 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Balsamo, S. R.

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Baltes, H. P.

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Boscher, J.

J. Boscher, F. Lehmann, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflextionsspektros-kopie mit Hilfe der CO2 Lasertechnik,” Report BF-R-64.028-2 (Battelle Institut e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1980).

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

Dalu, G.

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Deacle, R. E.

Eng, S. T.

B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Englisch, W.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

English, W.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, A. F. H.

A. F. H. Goetz, L. C. Rowan, Science 211, 781 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, W. B.

Gurs, K.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hoenders, B.

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, G. R.

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, J.

B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

Kraushaar, R. J.

Kronstein, M.

Lehmann, F.

J. Boscher, F. Lehmann, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflextionsspektros-kopie mit Hilfe der CO2 Lasertechnik,” Report BF-R-64.028-2 (Battelle Institut e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1980).

Logan, L. M.

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, R. J. P.

R. J. P. Lyon, “Evaluation of Infrared Spectrophotometry for Compositional Analysis of Lunar and Planetary Soils,” NASA Rep. NASA Tech. Note 1871 (1963).

R. J. P. Lyon, J. W. Patterson, “Airborne Geological Mapping Using Infrared Emission Spectra,” in Proceedings, Sixth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1969), Vol. 1, p. 527.

Madura, D. P.

Marthinsson, B.

B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McDougal, D. S.

Menzies, R. T.

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, “The Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer: A New Instrument for Remote Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gases,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 420.

Patterson, J. W.

R. J. P. Lyon, J. W. Patterson, “Airborne Geological Mapping Using Infrared Emission Spectra,” in Proceedings, Sixth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1969), Vol. 1, p. 527.

Prabhakara, C.

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, L. C.

A. F. H. Goetz, L. C. Rowan, Science 211, 781 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, J. W.

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, M. S.

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, W. B. Grant, D. S. McDougal, Appl. Opt. 20, 545 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, “The Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer: A New Instrument for Remote Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gases,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 420.

Soha, J. M.

Steinle, B.

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Suits, G. H.

G. H. Suits, “Natural Sources,” in The Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds. (Office of Naval Research, U. S. Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 3–100.

Wiesemann, W.

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. Wiesemann, “Weiterentwicklung des DIALEX-Gerätes zum funktionstuchtigen Ingenieurmodell und Flugerprobung im DFVLR-Fluzeug Typ DO 28,” Report BF-R-63.545-1 (Battelle Institute e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1979).

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Wiesemann, R. Beck, W. English, K. Gurs, Appl. Phys. 15, 257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geology (1)

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

H. P. Baltes, B. Steinle, E. Jakeman, B. Hoenders, Infrared Phys. 19, 461 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

C. Prabhakara, G. Dalu, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 3719 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Logan, G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, S. R. Balsamo, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 4983 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Marthinsson, J. Johansson, S. T. Eng, Opt. Quantum Electron. 12, 327 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. F. H. Goetz, L. C. Rowan, Science 211, 781 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

G. H. Suits, “Natural Sources,” in The Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, Eds. (Office of Naval Research, U. S. Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1978), Chap. 3, pp. 3–100.

J. Boscher, F. Lehmann, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen der physikalischen Grundlagen zur Fernmessung von Boden- und Vegetationsfeuchte durch aktive Infrarot-Reflextionsspektros-kopie mit Hilfe der CO2 Lasertechnik,” Report BF-R-64.028-2 (Battelle Institut e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1980).

R. J. P. Lyon, J. W. Patterson, “Airborne Geological Mapping Using Infrared Emission Spectra,” in Proceedings, Sixth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1969), Vol. 1, p. 527.

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, “The Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer: A New Instrument for Remote Measurement of Atmospheric Trace Gases,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 420.

W. Wiesemann, “Weiterentwicklung des DIALEX-Gerätes zum funktionstuchtigen Ingenieurmodell und Flugerprobung im DFVLR-Fluzeug Typ DO 28,” Report BF-R-63.545-1 (Battelle Institute e.V., Frankfurt, W. Germany, 1979).

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

R. J. P. Lyon, “Evaluation of Infrared Spectrophotometry for Compositional Analysis of Lunar and Planetary Soils,” NASA Rep. NASA Tech. Note 1871 (1963).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the apparatus used for measurement of differential reflectance. The HP 21 computer controls the entire measurement process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential reflectivity of sand and asphalt in the 9.4- and 10.4-μm bands of the CO2 laser. P(22) in the 9.4-μm band (λ = 9.569 μm) is the reference wavelength.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Laser Measurement System Response to Sulfur Flowers in the 9.4-μm Band of CO2

Tables Icon

Table II Differential Reflectance Measurements for Various Materials at CO2 Laser Wavelengths a

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