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  1. E. D. Hinkley, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976).
    [Crossref]
  2. In this Letter, wavelength calibration using a primary wavelength standard refers to the recording of a reference spectrum of the same species being monitored. A secondary wavelength standard refers to the recording of a reference spectrum of a species other than the species being monitored.
  3. R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. E. Lawler, Contemp. Phys. 22, 235 (1981) and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  5. C. R. Webster, C. T. Rettner, Laser Focus (July1982) and references therein.
  6. D. Feldmann, Opt. Commun. 29, 67 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Vasudev, R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys.76, in press (1982).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. J. Saykally, U. California, Berkeley; private communication (1982).
  9. T. Suzuki, Opt. Commun. 38, 364 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. L. Skolnick, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 139 (1970);M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, U. P. Oppenheim, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 19 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. J. Saykally, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, in Laser Spectroscopy V, A. R. W. McKellar, T. Oka, B. P. Stoicheff, Eds. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1981), p. 305.
  13. D. J. Jackson, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford U. (1980).
  14. R. G. Hudson, E. I. Reed, Eds., The Stratosphere: Present and Future, NASA Reference Publication 1049 (1979).
  15. R. T. Menzies, C. W. Rutledge, R. A. Zanteson, D. L. Spears, Appl. Opt. 20, 536 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Development of a balloon-borne tunable laser system for simultaneous multiple species concentration measurements in the stratosphere, NASA proposal (1977).
  17. W. S. Heaps, Appl. Opt. 19, 243 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. I. S. McDermid, J. B. Laudenslager, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1824 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  19. “Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).
  20. W. B. Bridges, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 352 (1978).
    [Crossref]

1982 (2)

C. R. Webster, C. T. Rettner, Laser Focus (July1982) and references therein.

I. S. McDermid, J. B. Laudenslager, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1824 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (4)

T. Suzuki, Opt. Commun. 38, 364 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. E. Lawler, Contemp. Phys. 22, 235 (1981) and references therein.
[Crossref]

R. T. Menzies, C. W. Rutledge, R. A. Zanteson, D. L. Spears, Appl. Opt. 20, 536 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

D. Feldmann, Opt. Commun. 29, 67 (1979).
[Crossref]

“Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

M. L. Skolnick, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 139 (1970);M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, U. P. Oppenheim, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

Begemann, M. H.

R. J. Saykally, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, in Laser Spectroscopy V, A. R. W. McKellar, T. Oka, B. P. Stoicheff, Eds. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1981), p. 305.

Bridges, W. B.

California, U.

R. J. Saykally, U. California, Berkeley; private communication (1982).

Feldmann, D.

D. Feldmann, Opt. Commun. 29, 67 (1979).
[Crossref]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. E. Lawler, Contemp. Phys. 22, 235 (1981) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Green, R. B.

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

Heaps, W. S.

Jackson, D. J.

D. J. Jackson, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford U. (1980).

Keller, R. A.

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

Laudenslager, J. B.

I. S. McDermid, J. B. Laudenslager, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1824 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lawler, J. E.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. E. Lawler, Contemp. Phys. 22, 235 (1981) and references therein.
[Crossref]

Luther, G. G.

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, J. B. Laudenslager, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1824 (1982).
[Crossref]

Menzies, R. T.

Pfaff, J.

R. J. Saykally, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, in Laser Spectroscopy V, A. R. W. McKellar, T. Oka, B. P. Stoicheff, Eds. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1981), p. 305.

Rettner, C. T.

C. R. Webster, C. T. Rettner, Laser Focus (July1982) and references therein.

C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
[Crossref]

Rutledge, C. W.

Saykally, R. J.

R. J. Saykally, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, in Laser Spectroscopy V, A. R. W. McKellar, T. Oka, B. P. Stoicheff, Eds. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1981), p. 305.

R. J. Saykally, U. California, Berkeley; private communication (1982).

Schenck, P. K.

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. L.

M. L. Skolnick, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 139 (1970);M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, U. P. Oppenheim, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

Spears, D. L.

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, Opt. Commun. 38, 364 (1981).
[Crossref]

Travis, J. C.

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

Vasudev, R.

R. Vasudev, R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys.76, in press (1982).
[Crossref]

Webster, C. R.

C. R. Webster, C. T. Rettner, Laser Focus (July1982) and references therein.

C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
[Crossref]

Zanteson, R. A.

Zare, R. N.

C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. Vasudev, R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys.76, in press (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Contemp. Phys. (1)

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. E. Lawler, Contemp. Phys. 22, 235 (1981) and references therein.
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

R. B. Green, R. A. Keller, G. G. Luther, P. K. Schenck, J. C. Travis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-13, 63 (1977).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. L. Skolnick, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 139 (1970);M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, U. P. Oppenheim, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 19 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

I. S. McDermid, J. B. Laudenslager, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1824 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. T. Rettner, C. R. Webster, R. N. Zare, J. Phys. Chem. 85, 1105 (1981).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus (1)

C. R. Webster, C. T. Rettner, Laser Focus (July1982) and references therein.

NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1)

“Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Feldmann, Opt. Commun. 29, 67 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. Suzuki, Opt. Commun. 38, 364 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

E. D. Hinkley, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer, Heidelberg, 1976).
[Crossref]

In this Letter, wavelength calibration using a primary wavelength standard refers to the recording of a reference spectrum of the same species being monitored. A secondary wavelength standard refers to the recording of a reference spectrum of a species other than the species being monitored.

R. Vasudev, R. N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys.76, in press (1982).
[Crossref]

R. J. Saykally, U. California, Berkeley; private communication (1982).

Development of a balloon-borne tunable laser system for simultaneous multiple species concentration measurements in the stratosphere, NASA proposal (1977).

R. J. Saykally, M. H. Begemann, J. Pfaff, in Laser Spectroscopy V, A. R. W. McKellar, T. Oka, B. P. Stoicheff, Eds. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1981), p. 305.

D. J. Jackson, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford U. (1980).

R. G. Hudson, E. I. Reed, Eds., The Stratosphere: Present and Future, NASA Reference Publication 1049 (1979).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a tunable cw laser absorption system for atmospheric monitoring using an optogalvanic calibration technique. Typical operating conditions for the electric discharge would be HV ≃ 400 V; R ≃ 1–10 kΩ; C ≃ 0.01 μF; gas pressure ≃ 1 Torr; and BS = beamsplitter. Discharge cell dimensions are typically a few cm long and a few mm internal diameter. An rf discharge cell could alternatively be used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of a pulsed laser fluorescence system for atmospheric monitoring using an optogalvanic calibration technique. The particular rf discharge cell drawn is adapted from Ref. 9: BS = beam splitter; PD = photodetector; A, C, D, R = amplifier, capacitor, diode, and resistor, respectively. A dc discharge cell could alternatively be used.

Tables (1)

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Table I Neutral Stratospheric Species of Interesta

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