Abstract

Wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers using a chirped grating and an ion-exchanged multimode waveguide are presented. The waveguide is prepared by the electric-field-assisted ion-exchange technique, and the chirped grating is fabricated by the computer-controlled electron-beam writing technique. The device requires no collimating and focusing components and has the advantages of (1) high resolution, (2) large channel number, (3) small cross talk, (4) low insertion loss, (5) low loss coupling to multimode fiber, (6) compact and stable rugged structure, and (7) possibility of economical mass production. The design considerations and the fabrication process are described, and the demultiplexing characteristics of the fabricated device are discussed.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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1981

1980

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 19, 1127 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Handa, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Appl. Opt. 19, 2842 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fujii, K. Aoyama, J. Minowa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 165 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Botez, G. J. Herskowitz, Proc. IEEE 68, 689 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3563 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Watanabe, K. Nosu, Appl. Opt. 19, 3588 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1965

Aoyama, K.

Y. Fujii, K. Aoyama, J. Minowa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 165 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Asawa, C. K.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Botez, D.

D. Botez, G. J. Herskowitz, Proc. IEEE 68, 689 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, D. A.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Dalke, E. A.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Friedrich, H. R.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Fujii, Y.

Y. Fujii, K. Aoyama, J. Minowa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 165 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gorre, L. E.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Hall, D. G.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Handa, Y.

Herskowitz, G. J.

D. Botez, G. J. Herskowitz, Proc. IEEE 68, 689 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD1.

Koyama, J.

Leppihalme, M.

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, Appl. Phys. 24, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3563 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ludman, J. E.

Meier, R. W.

Minowa, J.

Y. Fujii, K. Aoyama, J. Minowa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 165 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Nosu, K.

Persechini, D. L.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Powers, J. K.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Ramer, O. G.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Reed, W. R.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Rice, R. R.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Seki, M.

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD1.

Spear-Zino, J. D.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Suhara, T.

Tangonan, G. L.

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Viljanen, J.

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, Appl. Phys. 24, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3563 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, R.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys.

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, Appl. Phys. 24, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Y. Fujii, K. Aoyama, J. Minowa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 165 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Viljanen, M. Leppihalme, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3563 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Proc. IEEE

D. Botez, G. J. Herskowitz, Proc. IEEE 68, 689 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

J. D. Spear-Zino, R. R. Rice, J. K. Powers, D. A. Bryan, D. G. Hall, E. A. Dalke, W. R. Reed, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 239, 293 (1980).

Other

G. L. Tangonan, O. G. Ramer, H. R. Friedrich, C. K. Asawa, D. L. Persechini, L. E. Gorre, in Technical Digest, Second International Conference IOOC (Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, Amsterdam, 1979), p. 21.5.

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength demultiplexer using a chirped grating and an ion-exchanged waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coordinate system for describing the demultiplexer configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microphotograph of the fabricated chirped grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of the output port end (a) under chromatic light input, and (b) under monochromatic (λ = 1.03 μm, channel 2) light input.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured wavelength demultiplexing characteristic of the fabricated device.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Specifications of the Fabricated Demultiplexer

Tables Icon

Table II Crosstalk Measured Using a Nd3+:YAG Laser (λ = 1.06 μm, Channel 3)

Equations (8)

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y m l c = u m 2 [ u m 2 ( 1 2 tan ψ i ) 2 1 ] / [ u m 2 ( 1 2 tan ψ i ) 2 ] 1 2 tan ψ i , u m = 1 + sec ψ i 2 + λ c 2 n l c m , ( m = , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 , ; y 0 = 0 ) ,
grooves : y m < y < ½ ( y m + y m + 1 ) , teeth : ½ ( y m + y m + 1 ) < y < y m + 1 .
L 2 l c tan δ / cos 2 ψ i , n sin δ = N . A . ,
η = 4 π 2 sin 2 Φ 2 , Φ = 2 π λ n g · 2 t ,
t opt = λ / 4 n g .
l = l c cos 2 ψ / [ λ / λ c + ( λ / λ c 1 ) cos 3 ψ i ] , ψ = sin 1 [ ( λ / λ c 1 ) sin ψ i ] ,
Δ ψ > w o / l c ,
Δ λ λ = cos ψ sin ψ i Δ ψ Δ ψ sin ψ i > w 0 l c sin ψ i .

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