Abstract

A five-component optical model of Lake Ontario is discussed in terms of unique organics (as represented by chlorophyll a), unique inorganics (as represented by total suspended minerals), unique nonliving organics, and unique dissolved organics. Direct measurements of the irradiance attenuation coefficient K(0), the diffuse reflectance R(0), and the total atttenuation coefficient c are used in conjunction with simulated solutions of the radiative transfer equations to determine the inherent optical properties of the water masses. Multiple regressions between these inherent optical properties and directly measured water quality data are then performed to determine the absorption, scattering, and backscattering cross sections of the organic and inorganic components.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. M. DiToro, Water Res. 12, 1059 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 7, 1 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. H. Wilson, D. A. Kiefer, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 673 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Doerffer, Arch. Hydrobiol. 43, 119 (1979).
  11. R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. M. Burns, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).
  13. W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. H. F. Watson, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).
  15. E. A. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).
  17. S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Appl. Opt. 15, 886 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. C. Jain, “An Interpretation of the Spectral Reflectance of Natural Water,” Ph.D. Thesis, York University (1976).

1979 (4)

W. H. Wilson, D. A. Kiefer, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Doerffer, Arch. Hydrobiol. 43, 119 (1979).

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. M. DiToro, Water Res. 12, 1059 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1972 (1)

W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 7, 1 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, E. B.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Benson, A. A.

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

Bruton, J. E.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bukata, R. P.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Burns, N. M.

N. M. Burns, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).

Calvin, M.

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiToro, D. M.

D. M. DiToro, Water Res. 12, 1059 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Doerffer, R.

R. Doerffer, Arch. Hydrobiol. 43, 119 (1979).

Glooschenko, W. A.

W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Hulbert, E. A.

Jacobs, M. M.

Jain, S. C.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Appl. Opt. 15, 886 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Jain, “An Interpretation of the Spectral Reflectance of Natural Water,” Ph.D. Thesis, York University (1976).

Jerome, J. H.

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, Appl. Opt. 18, 3926 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

W. H. Wilson, D. A. Kiefer, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).

Miller, J. R.

Moore, J. E.

W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).

Olson, R. J.

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, K.

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, S.

S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).

Unoki, S.

S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).

Vollenweider, R. A.

W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Watson, N. H. F.

N. H. F. Watson, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).

Wilson, W. H.

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wilson, D. A. Kiefer, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 7, 1 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Arch. Hydrobiol. (1)

R. Doerffer, Arch. Hydrobiol. 43, 119 (1979).

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

K. Shibata, A. A. Benson, M. Calvin, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15, 461 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 7, 1 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Great Lakes Res. (1)

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, E. B. Bennett, J. Great Lakes Res. 4, 456 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

W. A. Glooschenko, J. E. Moore, R. A. Vollenweider, Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 597 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wilson, D. A. Kiefer, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 673 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. J. Olson, W. H. Wilson, Limnol. Oceanogr. 24, 664 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Water Res. (1)

D. M. DiToro, Water Res. 12, 1059 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

N. M. Burns, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).

N. H. F. Watson, Canada Centre for Inland Waters; private communication (1980).

S. Unoki, N. Okami, M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, “Optical Characteristics of Sea Water at Tokyo Bay,” Science and Technology Agency Report Japan (1977, 1978).

S. C. Jain, “An Interpretation of the Spectral Reflectance of Natural Water,” Ph.D. Thesis, York University (1976).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Location of sampling stations along the western Lake Ontario test transect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation between (Bb)443 and (Bb)670.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dissolved organic cross-section spectrum (calculated from Unoki et al.16). The dissolved organic carbon cross sections obtained from the present work are plotted for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated absorption a, backscatter (Bb), and scattering b cross-section spectra for the chlorophyll, suspended mineral, and nonliving organic components of the water column.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation between measured concentrations of Chl a (corrected for pheophytins) and those concentrations of Chl a calculated from the optimization technique of Jain and Miller.17

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation between measured concentrations of suspended minerals and those concentrations of suspended minerals calculated from the optimization technique of Jain and Miller.17

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table I Ranges of Measured Values of Water Quality Parameters and Calculated Values of Spectrooptical Parameters

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TABLE II Optical Cross Sections Determined from Five-Component Model (May, June, Sept. Data)

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Table III Chlorophyll Absorption Cross Sections (m2/mg)

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Table IV Dissolved Matter Absorption Cross Sections

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Table V Suspended Mineral Absorption Coefficients

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Table VI Optical Cross Sections Determined from Four-Component Model (May, June, Sept. Data)

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Table VII Comparison of Five- and Four-Component Model Absorption Cross Sections for Chlorophyll (m2/mg)

Tables Icon

Table VIII Mean Errors and the Standard Deviations for the Determination of Chlorophyll a and Suspended Mineral Concentrations Utilizing Optical Cross Sections Determined from the Five-Component and Four-Component Models

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NLO 78 = SO 78 Chl cor Chl unc POC 24 ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + x a Chl ( λ ) + y a SM ( λ ) + z a NLO ( λ ) + u a DO ( λ ) ,
b ( λ ) = b w ( λ ) + x b Chl ( λ ) + y b SM ( λ ) + z b NLO ( λ ) ,
( B b ) ( λ ) = ( B b ) w ( λ ) + x ( B b ) Chl ( λ ) + y ( B b ) SM ( λ ) + z ( B b ) NLO ( λ ) ,
( B b ) 443 = 0.7803 ( B b ) 670 + 0.0090 ( r = 0.85 ) ,
( B b ) 520 = 1.0990 ( B b ) 670 + 0.0085 ( r = 0.95 ) ,
( B b ) 550 = 1.2358 ( B b ) 670 + 0.0076 ( r = 0.97 ) ,

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