Abstract

The signal-to-noise ratio of full duplex fiber-optic telecommunication links using a single fiber with directional couplers is shown to be extremely sensitive to reflections from fiber end terminations and fiber-to-fiber connections. This paper will examine a series of experimental measurements made to determine the reflectance coefficients of several different end terminations and types of connection.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, Appl. Opt. 16, 1794 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Drake, Appl. Opt. 17, 3248 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Burns, G. LaBarbera, Hughes Aircraft Co., paper presented at FIBEROPTICON, Boston, Mass., 22, 23 May 1978.
  4. M. Rourke, Opt. Commun. 25, 40 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Drake, C. R. Husbands, in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WCC7.
  6. Step-index multimode optical fiber type GS-02-07, Electro-Optical Products Division, ITT, Roanoke, Va. 24019.
  7. Hughes coupler 1-6, -6.11-dB coupling ratio, 0.91-dB excess loss.
  8. DC-705 silicone diffusion pump oil, n = 1.58, Dow Corning Corp., Midland, Mich.
  9. T-1034 index-matching gel, n = 1.46, Math Associates, Great Neck, N.Y. 11021.
  10. Optical fiber fusion splicer, model FW 301, Orionics, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz.
  11. D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).
  13. U. C. Paek, A. L. Weaver, Appl. Opt. 14, 294 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. D. Drake, “Double-Bulb Optical Fiber Connector,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.
    [PubMed]
  15. D. B. Payne, C. A. Millar, Electron. Lett. 16, 11 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Step-index multimode optical fiber type 1025, Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y. 14830.

1980 (1)

D. B. Payne, C. A. Millar, Electron. Lett. 16, 11 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burns, R.

R. Burns, G. LaBarbera, Hughes Aircraft Co., paper presented at FIBEROPTICON, Boston, Mass., 22, 23 May 1978.

Drake, M. D.

M. D. Drake, Appl. Opt. 17, 3248 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Drake, “Double-Bulb Optical Fiber Connector,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.
[PubMed]

M. D. Drake, C. R. Husbands, in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WCC7.

Ettenberg, M.

J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).

Hill, K. O.

Husbands, C. R.

M. D. Drake, C. R. Husbands, in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WCC7.

Kato, D.

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kressel, H.

J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).

LaBarbera, G.

R. Burns, G. LaBarbera, Hughes Aircraft Co., paper presented at FIBEROPTICON, Boston, Mass., 22, 23 May 1978.

Millar, C. A.

D. B. Payne, C. A. Millar, Electron. Lett. 16, 11 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Payne, D. B.

D. B. Payne, C. A. Millar, Electron. Lett. 16, 11 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, M.

M. Rourke, Opt. Commun. 25, 40 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, A. L.

Wittke, J. P.

J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. B. Payne, C. A. Millar, Electron. Lett. 16, 11 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Kato, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2756 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Rourke, Opt. Commun. 25, 40 (1978).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

J. P. Wittke, M. Ettenberg, H. Kressel, RCA Rev. 37, 159 (1976).

Other (9)

R. Burns, G. LaBarbera, Hughes Aircraft Co., paper presented at FIBEROPTICON, Boston, Mass., 22, 23 May 1978.

M. D. Drake, C. R. Husbands, in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WCC7.

Step-index multimode optical fiber type GS-02-07, Electro-Optical Products Division, ITT, Roanoke, Va. 24019.

Hughes coupler 1-6, -6.11-dB coupling ratio, 0.91-dB excess loss.

DC-705 silicone diffusion pump oil, n = 1.58, Dow Corning Corp., Midland, Mich.

T-1034 index-matching gel, n = 1.46, Math Associates, Great Neck, N.Y. 11021.

Optical fiber fusion splicer, model FW 301, Orionics, Inc., Phoenix, Ariz.

Step-index multimode optical fiber type 1025, Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y. 14830.

M. D. Drake, “Double-Bulb Optical Fiber Connector,” to be submitted to Appl. Opt.
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Full duplex fiber-optic communication link.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Types of optical fiber termination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double-bulb connector concept.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Reflectivity of Optical Fiber Terminations and Connectors

Equations (6)

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P 2 = P 1 E C 1 T c , P 3 = P 1 E C 2 T t , P 4 = P 1 E C 1 R c E C 2 T t + P 1 E C 2 R t E C 1 T t + P 1 E 2 C 1 C 2 T c 2 L f 2 R c T t + P 1 E 2 C 1 C 2 T c 4 E 2 L f 2 R t T t ( C 1 2 + C 2 2 ) ,
P r = P 1 E C 1 T c L f T c E C 2 T t ,
S / I = P r / P 4 = ( P 1 E C 1 C 2 T c 2 L f T t ) / P 4 .
R = ( n core 1 n core + 1 ) 2 ,
R t = 0.0005 , R c = 0.001 , and T c = 0.989 ( 0.05 - dB loss in the connector ) ,
P 2 = P 1 E C 1 T 2 , P 4 = P 1 E C 1 R 2 E C 2 T 4 + P 1 E C 2 R 3 E C 1 T 4 P 1 E 2 C 1 C 2 T 4 R 2 , P 4 / P 2 = C 2 T 4 R 2 / T 2 ,

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