Abstract

In laser fusion and related fields the interaction between the laser and the target material is followed by the emission of x rays. The time history of these x rays is experimentally recorded by streak cameras. The currently used streak cameras have physical limitations for the temporal and spatial resolution limit. This paper presents a novel concept for a streak camera where these limitations are relaxed. In the camera described the photoelectron is moving in parallel electric and magnetic fields. The proposed design parameters use moderate fields and give time resolution limits of a few picoseconds and no spatial dispersion in one dimension.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. F. McConaghy, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.
  3. B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Oron, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 139, 235 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Oron, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1975.
  6. A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

1976

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Oron, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 139, 235 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. F. McConaghy, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, D. T.

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bird, P. R.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Bradley, D. J.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Coleman, L. W.

C. F. McConaghy, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Lamb, M.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Lewis, C. L. S.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Lieber, A. J.

A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

McConaghy, C. F.

C. F. McConaghy, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

M. Oron, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 139, 235 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Oron, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1975.

Roddie, A. G.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Sibbett, W.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

Smith, J. A.

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sutphin, H. R.

A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

Webb, C. B.

A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

Williams, A. H.

A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. L. Henke, J. A. Smith, D. T. Atwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 539 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. F. McConaghy, L. W. Coleman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 268 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

M. Oron, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 139, 235 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Oron, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1975.

A. J. Lieber, H. R. Sutphin, C. B. Webb, A. H. Williams, “Subpicosecond X-ray Streak Camera Development for Laser Fusion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1976 (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1976), p. 194.

P. R. Bird, D. J. Bradley, A. G. Roddie, W. Sibbett, M. H. Key, M. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, “Picosecond Chonography at X-ray Wavelengths,” in Proceedings, Eleventh International Congress on High Speed Photography, 1974 (Chapman and Hall, London, 1975), p. 118.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Velocity dispersion eliminator for electrons: a, photoanode; b, photoelectrons; c, photocathode; d, accelerating grid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron paths in the x-y plane for various emission angles α.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed x-ray-to-visible light converter: a, electron collector (photoanode); b, photoelectron path; c, fiber-optics plate for z-direction image compression; d, slit in front of the photocathode and grid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the x-ray streak camera: a, μ-metal shield; b, photocathode; c, acceleration grid; d, electron paths at the start of the pulse; e, electron paths at the end of the pulse; f, collecting screen (photoanode).

Equations (12)

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T c = 2 π B ( m e ) ,
Z = 1 2 ( e m ) E T c 2 = 2 π 2 E B 2 ( m e ) ,
T c = 2 π r υ = 1.5 × 10 9 sec ,
B = ( m e ) 2 π T c = 2.4 × 10 2 Wb / m 2
E = ( m e ) 2 Z T c 2 = 1.01 kV cm ,
E = E 0 + E 1 t ,
Z ¨ = e E m = e m ( E 0 + E 1 t ) .
Z = Z ( t e + T c ) .
Z ( t e + T c ) = e m [ 1 2 E 0 T c 2 + 1 6 E 1 ( T c 3 + 3 t e T c 2 ) ] + Z ˙ ( t e ) T c + Z ( t e ) .
Z ˙ ( t e ) = 0 ,
Z ( t e ) = 0 ,
Z ( t e + T c ) = e 2 m T c 2 [ E 0 + 1 3 E 1 T c + E 1 t e ]

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