Abstract

The first known broadband single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements within the cylinder of a firing internal combustion engine are reported. Postcombustion temperature and carbon monoxide concentration are probed with 1-mm3 spatial resolution and 10-nsec temporal resolution. Space- and time-resolved measurements, as presented here, are shown to be necessary for the study of fluctuating systems such as engines.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).
  2. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Nonlinear Spectroscopy for Combustion Research,” in Proceedings, APS Conference on Physics in the Automotive Industry, Detroit (May 1980), to be published.
  3. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopic Probe of Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800138.
  5. A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980); M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, F. Moya, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 21 (1980); G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, Appl. Opt. 18, 2343 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. A. Stenhouse, D. R. Williams, J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, Appl. Opt. 18, 3819 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  7. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).
  8. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. A: 137, 801 (1965).
  9. Megatech Mark III model TE1, Megatech Corp., 29 Cook St., Billerica, Mass. 01866.
  10. A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Davis, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. in press.
  12. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, manuscript in preparation).
  13. R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979); R. J. Hall, J. F. Verdieck, “Collisional Narrowing of the High Pressure CARS Spectrum of Nitrogen,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, J. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 700.
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Rimai, K. A. Marko, L. C. Davis, “Multichannel CARS Spectroscopy in Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa (Aug.1980), p. 666.
  15. L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Rahn, Sandia Laboratories; private communication).
  17. S. C. Johnston, “Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Visualization Study of Stratified Charge Engine Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800136.
  18. J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800137.

1980 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980); M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, F. Moya, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 21 (1980); G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, Appl. Opt. 18, 2343 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (4)

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Stenhouse, D. R. Williams, J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, Appl. Opt. 18, 3819 (1979).
[PubMed]

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979); R. J. Hall, J. F. Verdieck, “Collisional Narrowing of the High Pressure CARS Spectrum of Nitrogen,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, J. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 700.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. A: 137, 801 (1965).

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

Cole, J. B.

Davis, L. C.

L. Rimai, K. A. Marko, L. C. Davis, “Multichannel CARS Spectroscopy in Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa (Aug.1980), p. 666.

L. C. Davis, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. in press.

Druet, S.

F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980); M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, F. Moya, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 21 (1980); G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, Appl. Opt. 18, 2343 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979); R. J. Hall, J. F. Verdieck, “Collisional Narrowing of the High Pressure CARS Spectrum of Nitrogen,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, J. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 700.
[CrossRef]

Johnston, S. C.

S. C. Johnston, “Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Visualization Study of Stratified Charge Engine Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800136.

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. A: 137, 801 (1965).

Marko, K. A.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, manuscript in preparation).

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopic Probe of Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800138.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Nonlinear Spectroscopy for Combustion Research,” in Proceedings, APS Conference on Physics in the Automotive Industry, Detroit (May 1980), to be published.

L. C. Davis, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. in press.

L. Rimai, K. A. Marko, L. C. Davis, “Multichannel CARS Spectroscopy in Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa (Aug.1980), p. 666.

Mattern, P. L.

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Moya, F.

F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).

Pealat, M.

F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, Sandia Laboratories; private communication).

Rimai, L.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, manuscript in preparation).

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Nonlinear Spectroscopy for Combustion Research,” in Proceedings, APS Conference on Physics in the Automotive Industry, Detroit (May 1980), to be published.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopic Probe of Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800138.

L. Rimai, K. A. Marko, L. C. Davis, “Multichannel CARS Spectroscopy in Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa (Aug.1980), p. 666.

L. C. Davis, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. in press.

Smith, J. R.

J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800137.

Stenhouse, I. A.

Swords, M. D.

Taran, J-P. E.

F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. A: 137, 801 (1965).

Williams, D. R.

Zych, L. J.

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979); R. J. Hall, J. F. Verdieck, “Collisional Narrowing of the High Pressure CARS Spectrum of Nitrogen,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, J. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1980), p. 700.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980); M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, F. Moya, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 21 (1980); G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, Appl. Opt. 18, 2343 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, Opt. Commun. 30, 249 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. A: 137, 801 (1965).

Other (11)

Megatech Mark III model TE1, Megatech Corp., 29 Cook St., Billerica, Mass. 01866.

L. C. Davis, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. in press.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, manuscript in preparation).

L. A. Rahn, Sandia Laboratories; private communication).

S. C. Johnston, “Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Visualization Study of Stratified Charge Engine Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800136.

J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800137.

F. Moya, S. Druet, M. Pealat, J-P. E. Taran, “Flame Investigation by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” paper presented at AIAA Fourteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1976, paper 76-29; A. C. Eckbreth, United Technologies Research Center Report 78-41 (1978).

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Nonlinear Spectroscopy for Combustion Research,” in Proceedings, APS Conference on Physics in the Automotive Industry, Detroit (May 1980), to be published.

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopic Probe of Combustion,” in Proceedings, Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, Detroit (Feb.1980), paper 800138.

L. Rimai, K. A. Marko, L. C. Davis, “Multichannel CARS Spectroscopy in Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa (Aug.1980), p. 666.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the apparatus. As shown in the cross section A, the red Stokes beam R lies along the axis of the green pump beam G. Lenses L are 3 cm in diameter and 10 cm in focal length. Shown in the engine are windows W, piston P, spark plug S, and valves V. The dichroic D blocks all but the blue signal beam B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Single-pulse (dotted line) and three-pulse average (solid line) nitrogen spectra taken 20 msec after firing a propane-fueled engine. The two curves show good agreement. (b) Single-pulse (dotted line) and fifteen-pulse average (solid line) nitrogen spectra taken 10 msec after firing a propane-fueled engine. One or more misfires must have occurred during averaging. (c) Calculated nitrogen Q-band spectrum with T = 2200 K. Three-pulse average nitrogen spectra taken at various time delays after firing a methanol-fueled engine: (d) 10 msec, (e) 20 msec, and (f) 30 msec.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample calculation (a) and data (b), (c), (d), and (e) taken 10 msec after firing the engine in a rich methanol mixture. The calculation includes CO and N2 lines with (CO)/(N2) = 0.1 and T = 1800 K. A single-pulse spectrum (b) and a fifteen-pulse average spectrum (c) clearly show the presence of CO. A sharp peak near 2130 cm−1 belonging to high-temperature H2 can be seen in the three-pulse average spectra (d) and (e), whether the input beams are parallel-polarized (d) or cross-polarized (e). The presence of H2 was not included in the calculation (a).

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