Abstract

The possibility that the inherent sea surface spectral radiance of clear water can be computed in the green, yellow, and red regions of the spectrum solely from a knowledge of the solar zenith angle is developed in detail. This concept is tested with experimental data, and the results indicate that the normalized inherent sea surface spectral radiance is constant to within ~10% for Morel’s Case 1 waters as long as the phytoplankton pigment concentration does not exceed 0.25 mg/m3. In the same conditions the radiance at 670 nm is <0.012 mW/cm2μm sr. A scheme to implement this clear water radiance concept for atmospheric correction of CZCS imagery is presented.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, Appl. Opt. 18, 3587 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. W. Austin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 170 (1979).
  5. R. C. Smith, “Structure of Solar Radiation in the Upper Layers of the Sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).
  6. R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from Below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).
  7. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. A. Guinn, Appl. Opt. 14, 1924 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, “Detection of Ocean Chlorophyll from Earth Orbit,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. W. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, Eds. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California at San Diego, 1974), SIO Ref. 74–10.
  11. A. Y. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Y. Morel, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18, 177 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” at COSPAR/SCOR/IUCRM Symposium Oceanography from Space, Venice, Italy, 26–30 May 1980.
  16. C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).
  17. O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).
  18. A. Angstrom, Tellus 16, 64 (1964).
    [CrossRef]

1980

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Morel, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. de Leffe, Appl. Opt. 18, 3587 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Austin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 170 (1979).

1978

1977

A. Y. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

1965

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

1964

A. Angstrom, Tellus 16, 64 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angstrom, A.

A. Angstrom, Tellus 16, 64 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Austin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 170 (1979).

R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from Below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, O. B.

Clark, D. K.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” at COSPAR/SCOR/IUCRM Symposium Oceanography from Space, Venice, Italy, 26–30 May 1980.

de Leffe, A.

Deschamps, P. Y.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, “Detection of Ocean Chlorophyll from Earth Orbit,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. W. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, Eds. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California at San Diego, 1974), SIO Ref. 74–10.

Edgerton, C. F.

S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, “Detection of Ocean Chlorophyll from Earth Orbit,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. W. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, Eds. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California at San Diego, 1974), SIO Ref. 74–10.

El Sayed, S. Y.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, H. R.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guinn, J. A.

Herman, M.

Holmes, R. W.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Holm-Hansen, O. G.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Hovis, W. A.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, M. M.

Kattawar, G. W.

Lorenzen, C. J.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Menzel, D. W.

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Morel, A. Y.

A. Y. Morel, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plass, G. N.

Prieur, L.

A. Y. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, “Structure of Solar Radiation in the Upper Layers of the Sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

Strickland, J. D. H.

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Strong, A. E.

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanre, D.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, “Detection of Ocean Chlorophyll from Earth Orbit,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. W. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, Eds. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California at San Diego, 1974), SIO Ref. 74–10.

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

Appl. Opt.

Boundary Layer Meteorol.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, E. T. Baker, A. E. Strong, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 287 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol.

A. Y. Morel, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res.

C. S. Yentsch, D. W. Menzel, Deep Sea Res. 10, 221 (1963).

J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer

O. G. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, J. D. H. Strickland, J. Cons. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer 30, 3 (1965).

Limnol. Oceanogr.

A. Y. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

R. W. Austin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 170 (1979).

Science

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. El Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus

A. Angstrom, Tellus 16, 64 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” at COSPAR/SCOR/IUCRM Symposium Oceanography from Space, Venice, Italy, 26–30 May 1980.

R. C. Smith, “Structure of Solar Radiation in the Upper Layers of the Sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

R. W. Austin, “The Remote Sensing of Spectral Radiance from Below the Ocean Surface,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Neilsen, Eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

S. Q. Duntley, W. H. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, “Detection of Ocean Chlorophyll from Earth Orbit,” in Ocean Color Analysis, S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Austin, W. W. Wilson, C. F. Edgerton, S. E. Moran, Eds. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, U. California at San Diego, 1974), SIO Ref. 74–10.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Locations at which the in situ data described in the text were obtained. Circled points refer to locations for which the pigment concentration was <0.30 mg/m3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized inherent sea surface spectral radiance as a function of pigment concentration. Circles are for 443 nm, crosses for 520 nm, and stars for 550 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized inherent sea surface spectral radiance as a function of pigment concentration for higher concentrations than employed in Fig. 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized inherent sea surface radiance at 670 nm as a function of pigment concentration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Error in the retrieved pigment concentration from the blue-green algorithm for the various (Lw) error models described in the text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error in the retrieved pigment concentration from the green-yellow algorithm for the various (Lw) error models described in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Clear Water Radiances for Various Ranges in Pigment Concentration

Equations (15)

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L t ( λ ) = L r ( λ ) + L a ( λ ) + t ( λ ) L w ( λ ) .
S ( λ , λ 0 ) = e ( λ , λ 0 ) [ F 0 ( λ ) / F 0 ( λ 0 ) ] × exp { - [ τ 0 ( λ ) - τ 0 ( λ 0 ) ] [ 1 / μ + 1 / μ 0 ] } ,
L w ( λ ) = [ t ( λ ) ] - 1 { L t ( λ ) - L r ( λ ) - S ( λ , λ 0 ) [ L t ( λ 0 ) - L r ( λ 0 ) ] } .
L w = ( 1 - ρ ) R E d ( 0 - ) / n 2 Q .
E d ( 0 - ) = ( 1 - ρ ¯ ) E d ( 0 + ) ,
E d ( 0 + ) = F 0 μ 0 exp { - [ 0.5 τ r + τ 0 + ( 1 - ω 0 F ) τ a ] / μ 0 } ,
E d ( 0 + ) = F 0 μ 0 exp { - [ 0.48 τ r + τ 0 + 0.5 ( 1 - cos Θ ) τ a ] / μ 0 } ,
L w = [ ( 1 - ρ ) ( 1 - ρ ¯ ) R F 0 n 2 Q ] × μ 0 exp { - [ τ r / 2 + τ 0 + ( 1 - ω 0 F ) τ a ] / μ 0 } .
( L w ) = [ ( 1 - ρ ) ( 1 - ρ ¯ ) F 0 R n 2 Q ] .
K u ( λ ) = - [ 1 / L u ( λ , z ) ] d L u ( λ , z ) / d z
L i ( λ , 0 ) = L u ( λ , z ) exp [ + K u ( λ ) z ] L u ( λ , 0 )
e ( λ , λ 0 ) = ( λ , λ 0 ) n .
δ L w [ L a ( 670 ) ] / [ L a ( 670 ) ] c .
[ 0.98 ( 1.17 ) n δ L w ( 520 ) + 1.08 ( 1.24 ) n δ L w ( 550 ) ] × [ L a ( 670 ) ] / [ L a ( 670 ) ] c .
C ( λ 1 , λ 2 ) = A ( λ 1 , λ 2 ) [ L w ( λ 1 ) / L w ( λ 2 ) ] B ( λ 1 , λ 2 )

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