Abstract

The optical effects of radiation damage to metal mirrors have been examined using copper-ion beams incident on copper mirrors. Incident ion energies of 2, 5, and 8 MeV were used and dose levels were examined up to 4 × 1016 ions/cm2. Both crystalline and OFHC copper mirrors were studied. In situ ellipsometric data were recorded (λ = 633 nm) during the irradiations to determine the dose-dependent behavior of the radiation effects. Spectral reflectivity and optical scattering were evaluated for samples before and after the irradiations. Complementary analysis of the samples was performed with scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Significant changes in ellipometric parameters were noted during the irradiations. After exposure to large dose values, the optical properties of crystalline mirrors were consistent with the optical properties of bare copper. The ellipsometric changes have been attributed to alteration of the surface oxide film. Dose-dependent data have been used to determine the important damage mechanisms.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. See, for example, (a) J. O. Spiegler, Ed. Proceedings, Workshop on Correlation of Neutron and Charged Particle Damage (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1976), CONS760673. (b) S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eer Nisse, F. L. Vook, Eds., Application of Ion Beams to Metals (Plenum, New York, 1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  4. Reference to a company or product name does not imply approval or recommendation from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory or the U.S. Department of Energy to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.
  5. F. L. McCrackin, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 479, (1969).
  6. J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. P. Hildebrand, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, Appl. Opt. 13, 177 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3143 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 6–105.
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    [CrossRef]
  39. H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).
  41. D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).
  42. I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1980

F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1043 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 48 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Surf. Sci. 49, 529 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Manning, G. Mueller, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Hildebrand, R. L. Gordon, E. V. Allen, Appl. Opt. 13, 177 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Thin Solid Films 12, 443 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

F. L. McCrackin, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 479, (1969).

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 746 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963

A. W. Czanderna, H. Wieder, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 489 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 816 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961

M. Otter, Z. Phys. 161, 163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960

S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. 118, 1509 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1956

F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1954

1951

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3143 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1950

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5102 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1935

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Ahearn, J. S.

J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allen, E. V.

Anderson, M. H.

M. H. Anderson, Ph.D. Thesis, Auburn U., Auburn, Ala., 1977.

Aspenes, D. E.

D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Biegen, J. R.

P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A. G.

M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bootsma, G. A.

F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boyko, F. L.

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 746 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Butcher, E. C.

E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cathcart, J. V.

F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, E. G.

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Surf. Sci. 49, 529 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Thin Solid Films 12, 443 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Czanderna, A. W.

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Surf. Sci. 49, 529 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Thin Solid Films 12, 443 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 746 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, H. Wieder, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 489 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 816 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Drobny, V. F.

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, A. J.

E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gharpurey, M. K.

M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gijzeman, O. L. J.

F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, N. E.

E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R. L.

Gwathmey, A. T.

F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Habraken, F. H. P. M.

F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hapase, M. G.

M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, N. E. W.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, N. E. W. Hartley, Ion Implantation, Sputtering and Their Applications (Academic, London, 1976).

Hildebrand, B. P.

Hottier, F.

D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 522.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, W. G.

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. C.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, N. E. W. Hartley, Ion Implantation, Sputtering and Their Applications (Academic, London, 1976).

Kelly, R.

H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ladilfe, P. C.

P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lauritzen, T.

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lukes, F.

I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Manning, J.

J. Manning, G. Mueller, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 479, (1969).

Mitchell, J. W.

J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Monaghan, J. P.

J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G.

J. Manning, G. Mueller, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Naguib, H. M.

H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, J.

J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Noggle, T. S.

J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Oen, O. S.

J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohlidal, I.

I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Otter, M.

M. Otter, Z. Phys. 161, 163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pulfrey, D. L.

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rhodin, T. N.

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3143 (1951).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5102 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. 118, 1509 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rosolowski, J. H.

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, L. G.

Smith, T.

Spicer, W. E.

L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1043 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Theeten, J. B.

D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, N. E. W. Hartley, Ion Implantation, Sputtering and Their Applications (Academic, London, 1976).

Turkalo, A. M.

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, L. F.

L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 522.

Wieder, H.

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, H. Wieder, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 489 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 816 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Young, F. W.

F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Young, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Va., Charlottesville, 1950.

Acta Metall.

F. W. Young, J. V. Cathcart, A. T. Gwathmey, Acta Metall. 4, 145 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 636 (1935).

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Phys. Commun.

J. Manning, G. Mueller, Comput. Phys. Commun. 7, 85 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72, 5102 (1950).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Rhodin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 3143 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. W. Czanderna, H. Wieder, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 489 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater.

J. Narayan, O. S. Oen, T. S. Noggle, J. Nucl. Mater. 71, 160 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Johnston, J. H. Rosolowski, A. M. Turkalo, T. Lauritzen, J. Nucl. Mater. 46, 273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Chem.

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Phys. Chem. 66, 816 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D, Ser 2

E. C. Butcher, A. J. Dyer, N. E. Gilbert, J. Phys. D, Ser 2, 1, 1673 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 6, 746 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Tanaka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1043 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note

F. L. McCrackin, Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 479, (1969).

Opt. Acta

I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Opt. Acta 19, 817 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

D. E. Aspenes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, Phys. Rev. B20, 3292 (1979).

S. Roberts, Phys. Rev. 118, 1509 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Effects

H. M. Naguib, R. Kelly, Radiat. Effects 25, 1 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. S. Ahearn, J. P. Monaghan, J. W. Mitchell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1853 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

F. H. P. M. Habraken, O. L. J. Gijzeman, G. A. Bootsma, Surf. Sci. 96, 482 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Surf. Sci. 49, 529 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Hapase, M. K. Gharpurey, A. G. Biswas, Surf. Sci. 9, 87 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Wagner, W. E. Spicer, Surf. Sci. 46, 301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ladilfe, A. W. Czanderna, J. R. Biegen, Thin Solid Films 10, 403 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Clarke, A. W. Czanderna, Thin Solid Films 12, 443 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

M. Otter, Z. Phys. 161, 163 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. W. Young, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Va., Charlottesville, 1950.

M. H. Anderson, Ph.D. Thesis, Auburn U., Auburn, Ala., 1977.

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 6–105.

P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, N. E. W. Hartley, Ion Implantation, Sputtering and Their Applications (Academic, London, 1976).

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), p. 522.

A. W. Czanderna, Ed., Methods of Surface Analysis, Vol. I (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1975).

See, for example, the proceedings of the annual meeting on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials, most recently: H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Gunther, B. E. Newnan, Eds., “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 727 (1980). Previous years were edited by A. J. Glass and A. H. Gunther under the same title and printed as Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), 509 (1977), 462 (1976), 435 (1975), 414 (1974), 387 (1973), 372 (1972), 356 (1971), and 341 (1970).

See, for example, (a) J. O. Spiegler, Ed. Proceedings, Workshop on Correlation of Neutron and Charged Particle Damage (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1976), CONS760673. (b) S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eer Nisse, F. L. Vook, Eds., Application of Ion Beams to Metals (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Reference to a company or product name does not imply approval or recommendation from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory or the U.S. Department of Energy to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental geometry (plan view) allowing the ellipsometric measurement of the sample region irradiated by the incident copper-ion beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated DPA profiles for a dose of 3 × 1016 copper ions/cm2 incident on a copper target for 2-, 5-, and 8-MeV incident ions and the optical skin depth or λ = 633 nm (- - -).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental changes in the ellipsometric parameter Δ for energetic copper ions incident on (a) a chemically polished crystalline copper mirror, and (b) a commercially polished OFHC copper mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental changes in the ellipsometric parameter ψ for energetic copper ions incident on (a) a chemically polished crystalline copper mirror, and (b) a commercially polished OFHC copper mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental changes in the ellipsometric parameters for two irradiations with 5-MeV copper ions on a chemically polished crystalline copper mirror: (a) changes in Δ, and (b) changes in ψ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in hemispherical spectral reflectance (RirradRunirrmd) for 5-MeV copper-ion irradiations of a chemically polished crystalline copper mirror to a dose of 1.9 × 1016 ions/cm2 (□) and a commercial OFHC copper mirror to a dose of 1.3 × 1016 ions/cm2 (○). Absolute reflectance data are shown for both samples with solid symbols ■ and ●, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM photomicrographs of a commercially polished OFHC copper mirror after 2-MeV copper-ion irradiation to a dose of 2.1 × 1016 ions/cm2: (a) outside the irradiation spot, (b) edge of irradiation region, and (c) inside irradiated spot.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated dependence of ellipsometric parameter ψ on oxide film thickness for substrate optical constants (n,κ) of (0.139, 27.5).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dose-dependent film thick ness for a simple sputtering model with an initial 5-nm film thickness and 1-nm (●) and 2-nm (○) active sputtering regions near the film surface.

Figs. 10
Figs. 10

Dose-dependent behavior of Δ and ψ for a 5-nm film undergoing chemical dissociation (●) or surface sputtering (○). Initial optical constants are (2.8, 0.3) and (0.139, 27.5) for the film and substrate, respectively.

Figs. 11
Figs. 11

Functional dependence of Δ and ψ on the film κ for constant values of df(3,5,7,9 nm), ns (0.139), κs (27.5), and nf (2.65).

Tables (1)

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Table I Optical Constants of Copper at λ = 6328 Å

Equations (3)

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Δ = δ p s ( r ) - δ p s ( i ) .
ψ = tan - 1 | r p r s | .
n ˜ = n - i k = n ( 1 - i κ ) .

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