Abstract

The fading rates of plastic plates dyed with a quinoline derivative (quinophthalone) have been measured under exposure to light of 366-, 404.7-, and 435.8-nm wavelengths and to a high pressure Xe arc. The initial quantum yield of fading is 2 × 10−5 and is independent of incident wavelengths. The correlation between the fading by lamp exposure and that by solar exposure is obtained using a filtered 1000-W Xe arc, a simulated solar radiation source. The fading plates provide simple and inexpensive means to measure the integrated lamp output and solar energy.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. F. Launer, J. Res. Natl.. Bur. Stands USA 41, 169 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Light sensitive papers and plastic chips used for the calibration of the arc lamp output may be obtained from the National Bureau of Standards U.S.A. (Standard Reference Materials 700, 702, and 703).
  3. F. J. Rizzo, Am. Dyes. Rep. 51, 124 (1962).
  4. K. Yoshikawa, T. Shirota, Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn. 111, 69 (1976).
  5. Colour Index (Society of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, England, 1971).
  6. Spectral irradiance shown in Fig. 4(A) is constructed using the data from the catalog of Oriel Corp. and the transmission curve of Corning CS1-75 filter.
  7. K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).
  8. Oriel catalog, Solar Simulators, 1978 (Oriel Corp. America, Stamford, Conn.).
  9. J. Weber, Phys. Lett. A. 45, 35 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1980

K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).

1976

K. Yoshikawa, T. Shirota, Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn. 111, 69 (1976).

1973

J. Weber, Phys. Lett. A. 45, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1962

F. J. Rizzo, Am. Dyes. Rep. 51, 124 (1962).

1948

H. F. Launer, J. Res. Natl.. Bur. Stands USA 41, 169 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Demerjian, K. L.

K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).

Launer, H. F.

H. F. Launer, J. Res. Natl.. Bur. Stands USA 41, 169 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, J. T.

K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).

Rizzo, F. J.

F. J. Rizzo, Am. Dyes. Rep. 51, 124 (1962).

Schere, K. L.

K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).

Shirota, T.

K. Yoshikawa, T. Shirota, Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn. 111, 69 (1976).

Weber, J.

J. Weber, Phys. Lett. A. 45, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, K.

K. Yoshikawa, T. Shirota, Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn. 111, 69 (1976).

Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol.

K. L. Demerjian, K. L. Schere, J. T. Peterson, Adv. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 369 (1980).

Am. Dyes. Rep.

F. J. Rizzo, Am. Dyes. Rep. 51, 124 (1962).

Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn.

K. Yoshikawa, T. Shirota, Bull. Res. Inst. Polym. Text. Yokohama, Jpn. 111, 69 (1976).

J. Res. Natl.. Bur. Stands USA

H. F. Launer, J. Res. Natl.. Bur. Stands USA 41, 169 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A.

J. Weber, Phys. Lett. A. 45, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

Light sensitive papers and plastic chips used for the calibration of the arc lamp output may be obtained from the National Bureau of Standards U.S.A. (Standard Reference Materials 700, 702, and 703).

Oriel catalog, Solar Simulators, 1978 (Oriel Corp. America, Stamford, Conn.).

Colour Index (Society of Dyers and Colourists, Bradford, England, 1971).

Spectral irradiance shown in Fig. 4(A) is constructed using the data from the catalog of Oriel Corp. and the transmission curve of Corning CS1-75 filter.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for measuring fading of dyed plates: LS, light source; I1, I2, I3, iris diaphragms; LF, water filter (5 cm long); F, filter; S, sample plate; D, radiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Curve 1, absorbance spectrum of a 3.15-mm dyed plate. Two main peaks are observed at 420 and 443 nm. Curve 2, absorbance spectrum of the same plate after exposure to the Xe lamp. Fading is uniform throughout the entire region of absorption. Curve 3, absorbance spectrum of a 1.52-mm dyed plate. (B) Molar absorption coefficient (base 10) of quinoline dye (Solvent Yellow 33) in ethanol. Three peaks are apparent at 289, 413, and 435 nm with = 1.64 × 104, 1.75 × 104, and 1.63 × 104 dm3 mol−1 cm−1, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fading rates of a 3.15-mm dyed plate at 366 nm, ▲; 404.7 nm, □; and 435.8 nm, ◃. Decrease in absorbance (△ absorbance) is measured at 420 nm. Quantum yield of fading is initially 2 × 10−5 and decreases with exposure; the yield is nearly independent of wavelength within the precision of the measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Spectral irradiance of the filtered 1000-W Xe lamp (Corning CS1-75 filter) in arbitrary units. Hatched area shows the portion of radiation absorbed by a 3.15-mm plate. (B) Solar spectral irradiance at the earth’s surface for a zenith angle of zero; the full line (300–700-nm region) is constructed using the data of Ref. 7, Table 5, and the broken line (700–1250-nm region) is drawn according-to the data of Ref. 8. Hatched area is the portion of the solar energy absorbed by a 3.15-mm plate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Decrease in absorbance as a function of energy absorbed by 1.52-mm plates; light sources are the filtered (Corning CS1-75) 1000-W Xe lamp. ○, nonair-cooled plate; ●, air-cooled plate; and ◃ 435.8-nm Hg line. (B) Decrease in absorbance as a function of energy absorbed by 3.15-mm plates; light sources are the filtered 1000-W Xe lamp: ○, nonair-cooled plate; ●, air-cooled plate; and ▲, 366-nm Hg line; □, 404.7-nm Hg line; ◃, 435.8-nm Hg line. Corresponding solar exposure is calculated from the fractions of solar energy absorbed by the plates.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Wavelength Dependence of the Fading Rate in 3.15-mm Dyed Plates

Tables Icon

Table II Fading Rates of 3.15-mm Dyed Plates under Exposure to the 1000-W Xe Lampa

Tables Icon

Table III Zenith Angle Dependence of the Solar Flux at the Earth’s Surface and the Fraction of the Flux Absorbed by the Dyed Plates

Equations (2)

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Φ F = ( number of dye molecules destroyed ) / ( number of quanta absorbed ) ,
Φ F = 4.1 × 10 15 2 × 10 20 = 2 × 10 - 5 .

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