Abstract

Photofabrication techniques using positive photoresists, developed for the quantity production of theodolite circular scales, have been adapted to making master chrome masks for photoetching moiré fringe radial diffraction gratings. Diamond stylus wear, or chipping of the diamond tip, on a precision surface measuring instrument is difficult to detect and can cause incorrect surface texture measurements. A stylus wear standard was developed, and fabrication problems were solved by the anisotropic etching of a silicon slice using a chrome mask and photoresist. An essential feature of this process was precise orientation of the mask with a crystal cleavage plane. Experience gained suggests the means for quantitative quality control of diamond tools used for micromachining.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. F. Horne, Dividing, Ruling and Mask Making (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1974), pp. 14, 15, 33–44, 64–67, 93–97, 107–109, 115–124, 212–219.
  2. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).
  4. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).
  5. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).
  6. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).
  7. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).
  8. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).
  10. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).
  11. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).
  12. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).
  13. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).
  14. D. F. Horne, Optical Instruments and Their Applications (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1980), pp. 16, 17, 42–45, 68–69, 172–180, and 218–225.
  15. D. F. Horne, “Recent Advances in Graticule and Mask Making,” Opt. Acta 20, 939 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Sayce, “Gratings in Metrology,” J. Phys. E 5, No. 3, 193 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. F. Horne, “Manufacturing Techniques for Making Precision Circular Scales, Precis. Eng. 2, 77 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. F. Horne, “Improvements in or Relating to Copying Apparatus,” British Patent1248564, filed 27Oct.1967; German Patent1804923, published 26Nov.1968; Japanese Patent77948; U.S. Patent3657545.
  19. P. R. Bellwood, S. C. Bottomley, “Shadow Printing with Automatic Alignment,” at Internepcon ’72 Semiconductor Symposium, Brighton, England, Oct. 1972.
  20. A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,199,219, filed 22Apr.1977; A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,165,149, filed 17Jan.1978. Canon proximity techniques 1979, pub. CE6179. 1077S2.5.
  21. J. K. Houston, “Light Exposure Means for Shadow or Contact Printing,” British Patent1353739, filed 12Aug.1970.
  22. A. T. Shepherd, Precis. Eng. 1, 61 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
    [CrossRef]
  25. ISO/DP5436, Calibration Specimens—stylus instruments, Sec. 4.2, Type B.
  26. D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. F. Horne, Optical Production Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1972, 1979), pp. 282–286, 358, 359.
  28. D. F. Horne, Lens Mechanism Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1975), pp. 153–161.

1981 (1)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
[CrossRef]

1980 (6)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Horne, “Manufacturing Techniques for Making Precision Circular Scales, Precis. Eng. 2, 77 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).

1979 (4)

A. T. Shepherd, Precis. Eng. 1, 61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).

1977 (3)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).

1973 (1)

D. F. Horne, “Recent Advances in Graticule and Mask Making,” Opt. Acta 20, 939 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. A. Sayce, “Gratings in Metrology,” J. Phys. E 5, No. 3, 193 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. M.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).

Bellwood, P. R.

P. R. Bellwood, S. C. Bottomley, “Shadow Printing with Automatic Alignment,” at Internepcon ’72 Semiconductor Symposium, Brighton, England, Oct. 1972.

Bent, R. G.

P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bottomley, S. C.

P. R. Bellwood, S. C. Bottomley, “Shadow Printing with Automatic Alignment,” at Internepcon ’72 Semiconductor Symposium, Brighton, England, Oct. 1972.

Hirabayashi, Y.

A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,199,219, filed 22Apr.1977; A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,165,149, filed 17Jan.1978. Canon proximity techniques 1979, pub. CE6179. 1077S2.5.

Horne, D. F.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

D. F. Horne, “Manufacturing Techniques for Making Precision Circular Scales, Precis. Eng. 2, 77 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).

D. F. Horne, “Recent Advances in Graticule and Mask Making,” Opt. Acta 20, 939 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Horne, “Improvements in or Relating to Copying Apparatus,” British Patent1248564, filed 27Oct.1967; German Patent1804923, published 26Nov.1968; Japanese Patent77948; U.S. Patent3657545.

D. F. Horne, Dividing, Ruling and Mask Making (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1974), pp. 14, 15, 33–44, 64–67, 93–97, 107–109, 115–124, 212–219.

D. F. Horne, Lens Mechanism Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1975), pp. 153–161.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).

D. F. Horne, Optical Production Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1972, 1979), pp. 282–286, 358, 359.

D. F. Horne, Optical Instruments and Their Applications (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1980), pp. 16, 17, 42–45, 68–69, 172–180, and 218–225.

Houston, J. K.

J. K. Houston, “Light Exposure Means for Shadow or Contact Printing,” British Patent1353739, filed 12Aug.1970.

Lee, H. G.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Masum, S.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

McKeown, P. A.

P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Routledge, I. A.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).

Sayce, L. A.

L. A. Sayce, “Gratings in Metrology,” J. Phys. E 5, No. 3, 193 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, A. T.

A. T. Shepherd, Precis. Eng. 1, 61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, G. W. W.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).

Suzki, A.

A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,199,219, filed 22Apr.1977; A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,165,149, filed 17Jan.1978. Canon proximity techniques 1979, pub. CE6179. 1077S2.5.

J. Photogr. Sci. (5)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Properties of Liquid Photoresists Used in the Photoetching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 250 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Production of High Resolution Photoetched Stainless Steel Plaques,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 43 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Focusing of Precision Cameras for Photofabrication Mask Production,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 136 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, S. Masum, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 5: Effect of Stencil Integrity on Etch Factor and the Deep Etching of Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 140 (1980).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Evaluating the Registration of Mirror-Image Photoresist Stencils,” J. Photogr. Sci. 28, 203 (1980).

J. Microsc. (1)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, J. Microsc. 111, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Photogr. Sci. (4)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 1: Design of Experiments,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 254 (1977).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 2: Photoetched Profiles in Stainless Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 25, 72 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 3: Measurement of Etch Factor,” J. Photogr. Sci. 26, 242 (1978).

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 4: Photoetched Profiles in Mild Steel,” J. Photogr. Sci. 27, 181 (1979).

J. Phys. E (1)

L. A. Sayce, “Gratings in Metrology,” J. Phys. E 5, No. 3, 193 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

D. F. Horne, “Recent Advances in Graticule and Mask Making,” Opt. Acta 20, 939 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, H. G. Lee, “Production of Spring Steel Camera Shutter Blades by Photoetching,” Precis. Eng. 1, 25 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (5)

D. F. Horne, “Manufacturing Techniques for Making Precision Circular Scales, Precis. Eng. 2, 77 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Shepherd, Precis. Eng. 1, 61 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. A. McKeown, R. G. Bent, Precis. Eng. 1, 19 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, “Radial Grating Master Making,” Precis. Eng. 3, No. 4, 000 (1981). Accepted for publication this October but pages unknown.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, I. A. Routledge, G. W. W. Stevens, Precis. Eng. 2, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

D. F. Horne, Optical Production Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1972, 1979), pp. 282–286, 358, 359.

D. F. Horne, Lens Mechanism Technology (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1975), pp. 153–161.

D. F. Horne, Dividing, Ruling and Mask Making (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1974), pp. 14, 15, 33–44, 64–67, 93–97, 107–109, 115–124, 212–219.

ISO/DP5436, Calibration Specimens—stylus instruments, Sec. 4.2, Type B.

D. F. Horne, “Improvements in or Relating to Copying Apparatus,” British Patent1248564, filed 27Oct.1967; German Patent1804923, published 26Nov.1968; Japanese Patent77948; U.S. Patent3657545.

P. R. Bellwood, S. C. Bottomley, “Shadow Printing with Automatic Alignment,” at Internepcon ’72 Semiconductor Symposium, Brighton, England, Oct. 1972.

A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,199,219, filed 22Apr.1977; A. Suzki, Y. Hirabayashi, U.S. patent4,165,149, filed 17Jan.1978. Canon proximity techniques 1979, pub. CE6179. 1077S2.5.

J. K. Houston, “Light Exposure Means for Shadow or Contact Printing,” British Patent1353739, filed 12Aug.1970.

D. M. Allen, D. F. Horne, G. W. W. Stevens, I. A. Routledge, “Quantitative Examination of Photofabricated Profiles. Part 6: High Depth to Width Ratio Profiles in (110) Silicon Produced by Anisotropic Photoetching,” J. Photogr. Sci. in press (1981).

D. F. Horne, Optical Instruments and Their Applications (Adam Hilger, Bristol, England, 1980), pp. 16, 17, 42–45, 68–69, 172–180, and 218–225.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setting and stadia distance measuring reticles as used in a surveying telescope eyepiece. Linewidths are usually ~3-μm wide chrome on 6-mm diam glass substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Alignment telescope targets are usually from 38- to 57-mm diam and calibrated for straightness measurements when graduations are beyond the range of micrometer readings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Special camera for microphotography and the production of reticles or target patterns. Illuminated artwork outside the camera room is seen through an open door.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ruling tracelet, as used on a linear or circular dividing machine, for the automatic scribing of lines in uniform steps to make a scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diamond tipped tools are used to rule lines directly into glass or through thin metal films on glass substrates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Circular scales are required with many types of ruling, but the width of lines is usually 3 μm or more graduated to an accuracy within 5 sec of arc. In this example the longest lines are 0.9 mm and the shortest 0.02-mm length. Figures may be between 75 and 150 μm in height.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

An accuracy within 2 sec of arc can be achieved when ruling a two-sided theodolite scale of 90-mm diam. Optical system provides for simultaneous readings of both vertical and horizontal circular scales although each has an independent light path.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Xenon arc lamp with condenser lens and mirror system to illuminate the underside of a slowly rotating circular scale master in proximity with a photoresist-coated copy. Exposure is controlled by a timer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Automatic transfer system for photoresist-coated silicon slices to the mask exposure station: (a) slice input chuck; (b) input chuck lowered to work station for slice transfer; (c) slightly buckled slice separated from mask by ~5 μm during exposure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Automatic mask and slice alignment system, in which two photoelectric microscopes each have servo drives to their refractor blocks, for detecting and centering on fiducial marks etched in the slice. After locating the fiducial marks on the mask a servo-controlled mask table is moved to align the mask over the slice.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Single mercury lamp has six reflecting elements to form virtual images of the source in a common plane. Central stop prevents the direct passage of light without reflection from the annular array of mirrors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Moiré fringes are used to read the displacement of a moving grating in relation to a fixed grating segment by means of interference patterns. The moving fringes amplify changes in position of the grating and can be counted by a photodetector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Equally spaced opaque and clear spaces on gratings are used for transmission or reflecting moiré fringe control systems. Accuracy may be limited by residual grating errors, but, in angular measurement, these can be eliminated by averaging over a segment to achieve a resolution of <1 sec of arc.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Artwork for one tapered line is ruled by a coordinatograph onto Mylar laminate giving a clear outline on a ruby background.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Five-line dark-background mask, mounted on frame, is illustrated in an inverted position. The five line pairs are not resolved in the illustration and appear to be one wide line. Fiduciary marks are used to align the mask on a dividing table but are not exposed by the light source.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

CNC circular dividing table assembly with a five-line mask located over photoresist and chrome-coated glass blank. During exposure a multiple-image mercury light source is mounted over the mask.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Scanning electron micrograph illustrating cleaved section of a 2.5-μm slot etched in a silicon slice.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Checking a Talysurf diamond stylus tip using a silicon dioxide-coated silicon wear standard.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Silicon slice located on circular table ready to accept the chrome mask shown in the foreground. A vernier for minor adjustments to the table can be seen on the circular scale to the right-hand side of the 102-mm square mask. A multiple image mercury source is mounted over the table.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Stages in the processing of silicon slices: (a) silicon with thin layer of thermally deposited silicon dioxide; (b) slice coated with photoresist and exposed through chrome coated mask by actinic light; (c) photoresist developed; (d) silicon dioxide etched; (e) photoresist stencil removed and silicon etched; (f) silicon dioxide etched away before reoxidizing to improve scratch resistance of the wear standard.

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