Abstract

To avoid systematic errors in differential absorption lidar experiments, which use the atmospheric aerosol as a distributed reflector, the assumption has to be made that the volume backscattering coefficient is approximately the same at the two wavelengths. A model of the aerosol has been used to show that in the 9–11-μm region this assumption may be invalid since absorption by the aerosol makes the backscattering term a sensitive function of frequency and relative humidity. To illustrate the problem we examine five pairs of laser frequencies recommended in the literature for monitoring ammonia, ozone, ethylene, and Freon-11 and show that peak-to-peak differential backscatter of >10% is common across the whole humidity range. We also show that the sensitivity of backscattering to humidity changes is such that the volume backscattering coefficient at the on-line wavelength can become larger than the off-line value as the relative humidity increases, an effect that may nullify any rise in trace gas concentration that happens to take place.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Inaba, T. Kobayasi, Nature (London) 224, 170 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Inomata, T. Igarashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1751 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. T. Menzies, Opt. Eng. 17, 44 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Technical Digest, Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.
  6. H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  7. M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.1975.
  8. D. S. Colburn, J. B. Pollack, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.
  9. R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Atmos. Environ. 3, 551 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).
  13. C. E. Junge, Adv. Geophys. 14, 1 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 178.
  15. A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Brosset, Ambio 5, 157 (1976).
  17. V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 187.
  18. R. G. Eldridge, J. Atmos Sci. 23, 605 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. G. Eldridge, J. Meteorol. 14, 55 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Pedersen, M. Todsen, Geo. Norvegica 21, 1 (1960).
  21. V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 177, 178.
  22. K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 18, 3457 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. T. Whitby, “Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Distribution,” Progress Report 253, Particle Technology Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Dept., U. Minnesota, Minneapolis (1975).
  26. C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).
  27. J. A. Hodges, Appl. Opt. 11, 2304 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. S. Covert, “A Study of the Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Humidity to Light Scattering by Aerosols,” M. S. Thesis, U. Washington, Seattle (1971).
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  30. J. C. Petheram, at Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring Md. (1980), post deadline paper.
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  32. W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie Scattering Calculations: Advances in Technique and Fast Vector Speed Computer Codes, NCAR/TN-140 + STR,” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (1979).
  33. J. Bufton et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1398A (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. C. Petheram, P. J. Wright, PRL Report DRIC-BR-53736, Plessey Radar Ltd., Cowes, I. W., U. K. (1977).
  35. Tables of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Precipitation for the World Part III (Meteorological Office, HMSO, London1958).
  36. S. S. Butcher, R. J. Charlson, An Introduction to Air Chemistry (Academic, London, 1972).
  37. J. Bufton, NASA GSFC; private communication (1980).
  38. A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. W. Schnell, G. Fischer, Appl. Opt. 14, 2058 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (2)

B. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 18, 3457 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bufton et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1398A (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, Opt. Eng. 17, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. Brosset, Ambio 5, 157 (1976).

1975 (2)

H. Inomata, T. Igarashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1751 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. Schnell, G. Fischer, Appl. Opt. 14, 2058 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

J. A. Hodges, Appl. Opt. 11, 2304 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. Hanel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 119 (1970).

1969 (2)

N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Atmos. Environ. 3, 551 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Inaba, T. Kobayasi, Nature (London) 224, 170 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. G. Eldridge, J. Atmos Sci. 23, 605 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

K. Pedersen, M. Todsen, Geo. Norvegica 21, 1 (1960).

1958 (1)

C. E. Junge, Adv. Geophys. 14, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. G. Eldridge, J. Meteorol. 14, 55 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Atmos. Environ. 3, 551 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Boscher, J.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Technical Digest, Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

Brosset, C.

C. Brosset, Ambio 5, 157 (1976).

Bufton, J.

J. Bufton et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1398A (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Bufton, NASA GSFC; private communication (1980).

Butcher, S. S.

S. S. Butcher, R. J. Charlson, An Introduction to Air Chemistry (Academic, London, 1972).

Charlson, R. J.

N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Atmos. Environ. 3, 551 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Butcher, R. J. Charlson, An Introduction to Air Chemistry (Academic, London, 1972).

Charpentier, H.

Colburn, D. S.

D. S. Colburn, J. B. Pollack, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.1975.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Comera, J.

Covert, D. S.

D. S. Covert, “A Study of the Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Humidity to Light Scattering by Aerosols,” M. S. Thesis, U. Washington, Seattle (1971).

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, “Subroutines for Computing the Parameters of the Electromagnetic Radiation Scattered by a Sphere, Report No. 320-3237,” IBM Scientific Center, Palo Alto, Calif. (1968).

Davis, L. I.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eldridge, R. G.

R. G. Eldridge, J. Atmos Sci. 23, 605 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Eldridge, J. Meteorol. 14, 55 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Englisch, W.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Technical Digest, Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

Fischer, G.

Hagard, A.

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hanel, G.

G. Hanel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 119 (1970).

Hodges, J. A.

Husar, R. B.

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, T.

H. Inomata, T. Igarashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1751 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Inaba, T. Kobayasi, Nature (London) 224, 170 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Inomata, H.

H. Inomata, T. Igarashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1751 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, C.

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, Adv. Geophys. 14, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).

Kobayasi, T.

H. Inaba, T. Kobayasi, Nature (London) 224, 170 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y. H.

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, A.

Megie, G.

Menzies, R. T.

Nilsson, B.

B. Nilsson, Appl. Opt. 18, 3457 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ottersten, H.

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

K. Pedersen, M. Todsen, Geo. Norvegica 21, 1 (1960).

Petheram, J. C.

J. C. Petheram, P. J. Wright, PRL Report DRIC-BR-53736, Plessey Radar Ltd., Cowes, I. W., U. K. (1977).

J. C. Petheram, at Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring Md. (1980), post deadline paper.

Pollack, J. B.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.1975.

D. S. Colburn, J. B. Pollack, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

Schnell, W.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Steinvall, O.

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Todsen, M.

K. Pedersen, M. Todsen, Geo. Norvegica 21, 1 (1960).

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Whitby, K. T.

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, “Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Distribution,” Progress Report 253, Particle Technology Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Dept., U. Minnesota, Minneapolis (1975).

Wiesemann, W.

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Technical Digest, Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie Scattering Calculations: Advances in Technique and Fast Vector Speed Computer Codes, NCAR/TN-140 + STR,” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (1979).

Wright, M. L.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.1975.

Wright, P. J.

J. C. Petheram, P. J. Wright, PRL Report DRIC-BR-53736, Plessey Radar Ltd., Cowes, I. W., U. K. (1977).

Zuev, V. E.

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 187.

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 177, 178.

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 178.

Adv. Geophys. (1)

C. E. Junge, Adv. Geophys. 14, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ambio (1)

C. Brosset, Ambio 5, 157 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Atmos. Environ. 3, 551 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

G. Hanel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 119 (1970).

Geo. Norvegica (1)

K. Pedersen, M. Todsen, Geo. Norvegica 21, 1 (1960).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos Sci. (1)

R. G. Eldridge, J. Atmos Sci. 23, 605 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 177 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 136 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

R. G. Eldridge, J. Meteorol. 14, 55 (1957).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Bufton et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1398A (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Inomata, T. Igarashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 1751 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

H. Inaba, T. Kobayasi, Nature (London) 224, 170 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. T. Menzies, Opt. Eng. 17, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 349 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci. (1)

A. Hagard, B. Nilsson, H. Ottersten, O. Steinvall, Radio Sci. 13, 277 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 178.

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), p. 187.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

J. Boscher, W. Englisch, W. Wiesemann, in Technical Digest, Coherent Laser Radar for Atmospheric Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThC2.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.1975.

D. S. Colburn, J. B. Pollack, at Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, SRI, Menlo Park, Calif.

J. C. Petheram, P. J. Wright, PRL Report DRIC-BR-53736, Plessey Radar Ltd., Cowes, I. W., U. K. (1977).

Tables of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Precipitation for the World Part III (Meteorological Office, HMSO, London1958).

S. S. Butcher, R. J. Charlson, An Introduction to Air Chemistry (Academic, London, 1972).

J. Bufton, NASA GSFC; private communication (1980).

K. T. Whitby, “Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosol Particle Distribution,” Progress Report 253, Particle Technology Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Dept., U. Minnesota, Minneapolis (1975).

C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).

D. S. Covert, “A Study of the Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Humidity to Light Scattering by Aerosols,” M. S. Thesis, U. Washington, Seattle (1971).

V. E. Zuev, Propagation of Visible and Infrared Radiation in the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 177, 178.

J. C. Petheram, at Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring Md. (1980), post deadline paper.

J. V. Dave, “Subroutines for Computing the Parameters of the Electromagnetic Radiation Scattered by a Sphere, Report No. 320-3237,” IBM Scientific Center, Palo Alto, Calif. (1968).

W. J. Wiscombe, “Mie Scattering Calculations: Advances in Technique and Fast Vector Speed Computer Codes, NCAR/TN-140 + STR,” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo. (1979).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Form of the theoretical particle size distribution used in the backscattering calculations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Growth of the particle size distribution as a function of relative humidity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real part of the refractive index for an 80% soluble/20% insoluble aerosol particle at three different relative humidities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaginary part of the refractive index for an 80% soluble/20% insoluble aerosol particle at three different relative humidities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Volume backscattering coefficients predicted by the model for the Urban, Maritime, and Continental air mass types at relative humidities of 50% and 95%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differential backscatter between on- and off-line wavelengths for the three air mass types for ammonia 10.4-μm band.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As Fig. 6, but for ammonia 9.6-μm band.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

As Fig. 6, but for ozone.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

As Fig. 6, but for ethylene.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

As Fig. 6, but for Freon-11.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Parameter Values Used in the Model to Specify Three Different Air Mass Types

Tables Icon

Table II Mass Fractions of Components Comprising Aerosol Particles in the Accumulation (A) Mode and the Coarse (C) Mode for Three Different Air Mass Types

Tables Icon

Table III Atmospheric Pressure CO2 Laser Lines Recommended in the Literature for Monitoring Some Common Atmospheric Trace Gases

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n d log r = 2 · 3 2 π N ln s g exp - 1 2 ( ln r / r m ln s g ) 2 ,
n 0 = [ n 1 δ 1 ρ 1 + n 2 δ 2 ρ 2 + n 3 δ 3 ρ 3 + n 4 δ 4 ρ 4 ] [ δ 1 ρ 1 + δ 2 ρ 2 + δ 3 ρ 3 + δ 4 ρ 4 ] - 1 ,
r r 0 = ( 1 - RH ) - 0.25 ,
Δ β ν = [ β ν ( off ) - β ν ( on ) β ν ( off ) ] × 100 % .

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