Abstract

Recent measurements of the single-scattering albedo ω˜0 of tropospheric aerosols indicate the presence of a strongly absorbing material which has tentatively been identified as graphitic carbon (soot). Theoretical calculations, based on several different models of the way in which soot might be mixed with other aerosol materials, show that a minimum of 20% soot by volume is necessary to achieve the observed urban value of ω˜0 = 0.6. Rural values of the order of 0.8 can be accounted for with 1–5% soot by volume. These same values of ω˜0 can be produced by similar amounts of the iron oxide magnetite, which is shown to be virtually indistinguishable from soot by optical measurements performed on bulk samples. Calculations of phase functions for various mixtures of soot also indicate the difficulty of determining aerosol composition by optical scattering techniques. The climatic effects of these absorbing aeorosols are computed using a simple one-layer model, and the results suggest that heating rates in urban pollution layers may be of the order of 4 K/day.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Thomas P. Ackerman and Owen B. Toon, "Absorption of visible radiation in atmosphere containing mixtures of absorbing and nonabsorbing particles: erratum," Appl. Opt. 21, 758-758 (1982)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-21-5-758

References

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  1. K. T. Whitby, Atmos. Environ. 12, 135 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. E. Weiss, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, U. Washington, Seattle (June1980).
  3. R. J. Charlson, U. Washington, Seattle, personal communication.
  4. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).
  6. J. L. Durham, R. K. Patterson, R. G. Draftz, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).
  7. M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Gillespie, S. G. Jennings, J. D. Lindberg, Appl. Opt. 17, 989 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Oimette, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (Aug.1980).
  10. E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. W. Bergstrom, Atmos. Environ. 6, 247 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, Appl. Opt. 20, 3657 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).
  17. K. Ya. Kondratyev, The Complete Atmospheric Energetics Experiment, GARP Publications Series 12 (1973).
  18. W. G. Egan, T. W. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979).
  19. D. R. Huffman, J. L. Stapp, Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, J. M. Greenberg, H. C. Van de Hulst, Eds. (Reidel, Boston, 1973).
  20. W. R. Pierson, P. A. Russell, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1623 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).
  22. T. P. Ackerman, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 531 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. N. Cuzzi, T. P. Ackerman, L. C. Helmle, J. Atmos. Sci. accepted for publication (1981).

1981 (2)

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, Appl. Opt. 20, 3657 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

W. R. Pierson, P. A. Russell, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1623 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

1977 (2)

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Ackerman, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. Ya. Kondratyev, The Complete Atmospheric Energetics Experiment, GARP Publications Series 12 (1973).

1972 (1)

R. W. Bergstrom, Atmos. Environ. 6, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ackerman, T. P.

O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, Appl. Opt. 20, 3657 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Ackerman, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Cuzzi, T. P. Ackerman, L. C. Helmle, J. Atmos. Sci. accepted for publication (1981).

Bergstrom, R. W.

R. W. Bergstrom, Atmos. Environ. 6, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R. J.

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, U. Washington, Seattle, personal communication.

Cuzzi, J. N.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Cuzzi, T. P. Ackerman, L. C. Helmle, J. Atmos. Sci. accepted for publication (1981).

Draftz, R. G.

J. L. Durham, R. K. Patterson, R. G. Draftz, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Durham, J. L.

J. L. Durham, R. K. Patterson, R. G. Draftz, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Egan, W. G.

W. G. Egan, T. W. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979).

Gillespie, J. B.

Gillette, D. A.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gundel, L.

H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Hansen, A. D. A.

H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).

Heisler, S. L.

S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).

Helmle, L. C.

J. N. Cuzzi, T. P. Ackerman, L. C. Helmle, J. Atmos. Sci. accepted for publication (1981).

Henry, R. C.

S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).

Hidy, G. M.

S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).

Hilgeman, T. W.

W. G. Egan, T. W. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979).

Huffman, D. R.

D. R. Huffman, J. L. Stapp, Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, J. M. Greenberg, H. C. Van de Hulst, Eds. (Reidel, Boston, 1973).

Jennings, S. G.

Khare, B. N.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kondratyev, K. Ya.

K. Ya. Kondratyev, The Complete Atmospheric Energetics Experiment, GARP Publications Series 12 (1973).

Lacis, A. A.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).

Lee, P.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).

Lindberg, J. D.

Novakov, T.

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Oimette, J.

J. Oimette, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (Aug.1980).

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, R. K.

J. L. Durham, R. K. Patterson, R. G. Draftz, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Pierson, W. R.

W. R. Pierson, P. A. Russell, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1623 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, H.

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

Russell, P. A.

W. R. Pierson, P. A. Russell, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1623 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, M.

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stapp, J. L.

D. R. Huffman, J. L. Stapp, Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, J. M. Greenberg, H. C. Van de Hulst, Eds. (Reidel, Boston, 1973).

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, Appl. Opt. 20, 3657 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. C.

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).

Watson, J. G.

S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).

Weiss, R. E.

R. E. Weiss, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, U. Washington, Seattle (June1980).

Whitby, K. T.

K. T. Whitby, Atmos. Environ. 12, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Environ. (4)

R. W. Bergstrom, Atmos. Environ. 6, 247 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sadler, R. J. Charlson, H. Rosen, T. Novakov, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, Atmos. Environ. 12, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Pierson, P. A. Russell, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1623 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

J. B. Pollack, O. B. Toon, B. N. Khare, Icarus 19, 372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. B. Pollack, J. N. Cuzzi, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 868 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Ackerman, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2074 (1977).
[CrossRef]

The Complete Atmospheric Energetics Experiment (1)

K. Ya. Kondratyev, The Complete Atmospheric Energetics Experiment, GARP Publications Series 12 (1973).

Other (10)

W. G. Egan, T. W. Hilgeman, Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials (Academic, New York, 1979).

D. R. Huffman, J. L. Stapp, Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, J. M. Greenberg, H. C. Van de Hulst, Eds. (Reidel, Boston, 1973).

J. E. Hansen, A. A. Lacis, P. Lee, W. C. Wang, in Proceedings, Conference on Aerosols: -Urban and Rural Characteristics, Source and Transport Studies (New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1979).

J. Oimette, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (Aug.1980).

H. Rosen, A. D. A. Hansen, L. Gundel, T. Novakov, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

J. L. Durham, R. K. Patterson, R. G. Draftz, in Proceedings, Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, T. Novakov, Ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, 1979).

R. E. Weiss, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, U. Washington, Seattle (June1980).

R. J. Charlson, U. Washington, Seattle, personal communication.

J. N. Cuzzi, T. P. Ackerman, L. C. Helmle, J. Atmos. Sci. accepted for publication (1981).

S. L. Heisler, R. C. Henry, J. G. Watson, G. M. Hidy, The 1978 Denver Haze Study, Volume 2, Final Report (Environmental Research and Technology, Los Angeles, Mar.1980).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single-scattering albedo as a function of the ratio of soot volume to total volume for soot–sulfate mixtures. Curves are for accumulation mode sulfate particles externally mixed with nucleation mode (solid) and accumulation mode (dashed) soot. Symbols are for internal mixtures of sulfate core and soot shell (circles) and soot core and sulfate shell (triangles). The dash–dot curve represents ω ˜ 0 = 0.85, the critical albedo value of Hansen et al.16

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-scattering albedo as a function of the ratio of soot volume to total volume for soot–soil mixtures. Curves are for coarse mode soil particles externally mixed with nucleation mode (solid), accumulation mode (dashed), and coarse mode (dotted) soot. Circles are for an internal mixture of soil core and soot shell. Dash–dot curve represents ω ˜ 0 = 0.85, the critical albedo value of Hansen et al.16

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-scattering albedo as a function of wavelength for coarse mode particles with soil cores and shells of soot, magnetite, and limonite. Solid curves are for 1% shell volume and dashed curves for 10% shell volume.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Complex index of refraction as a function of wavelength for soot (solid) and magnetite (dashed curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-scattering albedo as a function of wavelength for (a) mixtures of soil and magnetite particles and (b) mixtures of soil and soot particles. Circles and triangles denote coarse mode soil particles externally mixed with nucleation mode and accumulation mode absorbing particles, respectively. Squares denote (a) volume-averaged soil-magnetite particles and (b) soil core and soot shell particles. Solid curves are for 1% absorbing particle volume and dashed curves for 10% volume.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single-scattering albedo as a function of the volume fraction of soot for various soot–sulfate and soot–soil mixtures.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized phase functions calculated for pure sulfate particles (accumulation mode), soot particles (nucleation mode), and three soot–sulfate mixtures containing 10% soot by volume. Volume mix denotes calculations using a volume-averaged refractive index.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized phase function at 180° as a function of the volume fraction of soot for various soot–sulfate mixtures.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Complex Index of Refraction as a Function of Wavelength for Soot, Limonite, and Magnetite

Tables Icon

Table II Absorbtivity A, Reflectivity R, Transmissivity T, and Heating Rate HR In K/h for a Homogeneous Aerosol Layer with an Optical Depth of 0.5a

Equations (1)

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V ( ln r ) = C exp [ - ( ln r - ln r g v ) 2 / ( 2 ln 2 σ g ) ] ,

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