Abstract

The photocopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with vinyl benzoate (VB) containing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was carried out in a glass tube to fabricate a light-focusing plastic rod (LFR, radius Rp) with a parabolic refractive-index distribution (distribution constant A) in the region near the center axis (radius Rc). The dependence of A and Rc/Rp on MMA/VB, BPO concentration and the velocity of the UV lamp was clarified. These relations could be explained using a computer simulation based on the polymerization mechanism.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. Moore, Appl. Opt. 19, 1035 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).
  5. T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, K. Nishizawa, I. Kitano, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. S. Moore, U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).
  7. W. K. Swainson, U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).
  8. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).
  10. Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Iga, N. Yamamoto, Appl. Opt. 16, 1305 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Yamamoto, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1101 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook III (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), pp. 242 and 243.
  18. Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Appl. Opt. 16, 1050 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  20. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (4)

1979 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).

1978 (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

1976 (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Hatanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 735 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Brandrup, J.

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook III (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), pp. 242 and 243.

Chino, M.

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Hafner, W.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Hatanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 735 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Iga, K.

Immergut, E. H.

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook III (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), pp. 242 and 243.

Jira, R.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kapron, F. P.

Kitano, I.

T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, K. Nishizawa, I. Kitano, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Koike, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).

Koizumi, K.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Kubo, T.

Matsumura, H.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

McKenna, J.

Miyazawa, T.

Moore, D. T.

Moore, R. S.

R. S. Moore, U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).

Nakamoto, I.

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, K.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Appl. Opt. 16, 1050 (1977).
[PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Hatanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 735 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Okada, K.

Rawson, E. G.

Sabel, A.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sandler, S. R.

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sedlmeier, J.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Senga, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Appl. Opt. 16, 1050 (1977).
[PubMed]

Sieber, R.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Smidt, J.

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).

Swainson, W. K.

W. K. Swainson, U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).

Uchida, T.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Yamamoto, N.

Yasuda, H.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Koike, Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Org. Coat. Plast. Chem. Pap. 40, 382 (1979).

Angew. Chem. (1)

J. Smidt, W. Hafner, R. Jira, R. Sieber, J. Sedlmeier, A. Sabel, Angew. Chem. 74, 93 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Hatanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 735 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data (1)

S. R. Sandler, J. Chem. Eng. Data 18, 445 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Suppl. J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Other (3)

R. S. Moore, U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).

W. K. Swainson, U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).

J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook III (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1975), pp. 242 and 243.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the photocopolymerization apparatus: A, gear for rotating glass tube E; B, exhaust pipe; C, motor; D, motor; E, glass tube containing the monomer mixture; F, cylindrical shading; G, UV lamp; H, limiting switch; I, silicon photocell for monitoring; J, fan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the photocopolymerization process at steady state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative refractive-index distributions of the LFRs prepared for various monomer feed ratios MMA/VB at BPO = 0.5 wt. % and V = 1.0 mm/min, where the corresponding index distribution given from the values of A′ and Rc/Rp is represented with the straight line ending in the point having the abscissa of (Rc/Rp)2, B1, B2, B3, and B4, respectively MMA/VB (wt./wt.): ○, 2.5; △, 3.0; □, 4.0; ▽, 5.0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of BPO concentration on A′ and Rc/Rp for various MMA/VB at V = 0.9 mm/min. MMA/VB (wt./wt.): ○, 2.5; △, 3.0; □, 3.5;▽, 4.0; ◇, 5.0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representative index distributions of the LFRs determined interferometrically for various BPO concentrations at MMA/VB = 3.0 (wt./wt.) and V = 0.9 mm/min. BPO concentration (wt. %): ○, 0.5; △, 2.0; □, 5.0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of velocity V of the UV lamp on A′ and Rc/Rp, for various MMA/VB at BPO = 0.5 wt. %. MMA/VB (wt./wt.): ○, 2.5; △, 3.0;□, 3.5;▽, 4.0;◇, 6.0; ◃, 7.0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative index distributions of the LFRs determined interferometrically for two different Vs at MMA/VB = 3.0 (wt./wt.) and BPO = 0.5 wt. %. V (mm/min): ○,0.9; △, 0.6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the index distributions obtained from the computer simulation and from the experimental measurement of resulting LFR in the same MMA/VB [= 4.0 (wt./wt.)]: C, calculated from the simulation for Pc = 0.25, Pu = 0.60, and Pf = 0.80; D, the index distribution of the LFR prepared for BPO = 0.5 wt. % and V = 0.6 mm/min.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of BPO concentration on the monomer conversion (Pi) just after UV irradiation where V = 0.9 mm/min. MMA/VB (wt./ wt.): ○, 2.5; △, 3.0;□, 4.0; ▽, 5.0.

Equations (3)

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n ( r ) = n 0 ( 1 - ½ A r 2 ) = n 0 [ 1 - ½ A ( r / R p ) 2 ] ,
L = 2 π / A .
γ = cos ( A Z ) - n 0 A l 1 sin ( A Z ) ,

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