Abstract

A new UV submersible spectroradiometer has been employed to determine the diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance in the clearest natural waters [Kw(λ)] with emphasis on the spectral region from 300 to 400 nm. Kw(λ) can be related to the inherent optical properties of pure water, in particular the total absorption coefficient aw(λ) and the molecular scattering coefficient bm(λ), by means of equations derived from radiative transfer theory. We present an analysis showing that limiting values of Kw(λ) can be estimated from aw(λ) and vice versa. Published aw(λ) data, which show discrepancies much larger than their estimated accuracies, are briefly reviewed and then compared, via our analysis, with Kw(λ) data (our own new and previously published data as well as relevant data of others). This comparative analysis and new data allow a consistent and accurate set of optical properties for the clearest natural waters and for pure fresh water and saltwater to be estimated from 300 to 800 nm.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Hass, J. W. Davisson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 622 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1979 (4)

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, Appl. Opt. 18, 3348 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 60 (1979).

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

1978 (2)

1977 (3)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Hass, J. W. Davisson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 622 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Zepp, D. M. Cline, Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 359 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

V. O. Kopelevich, Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 391 (1976).

1975 (1)

1973 (2)

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 12, 555 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

T. J. Petzold, Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 72–78, (1970).

1968 (2)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 321 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

1966 (1)

1963 (2)

1961 (2)

F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 63 (1961); F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 41, 591 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 4 (1961).

1956 (1)

J. Lenoble, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 806 (1956).

1955 (1)

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, C. R. Acad. Sci. 240, 954 (1955).

1951 (1)

1950 (1)

N. G. Jerlov, Nature 166, 111 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1945 (1)

1939 (1)

G. L. Clark, H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 43 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. 31, 1 (1938).

1934 (1)

1931 (1)

W. R. Sawyer, Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish., New Ser. 7, 74 (1931).

Armstrong, F. A. J.

F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 63 (1961); F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 41, 591 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

R. W. Austin, SCOR Discover Expedition, Scripps Inst. Oceangr. Ref. 73-16, J. E. Tyler, Ed. (1973).

Bailey, J. D.

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 60 (1979).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. 31, 1 (1938).

Boalch, G. T.

F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 63 (1961); F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 41, 591 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

Calkins, J.

J. Calkins, CIAP Monograph 5, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (1975).

Cary, P. G.

Clark, G. L.

G. L. Clark, H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 43 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Cline, D. M.

R. G. Zepp, D. M. Cline, Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 359 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, J. A.

Davisson, J. W.

Dawson, L. H.

Duntley, S. Q.

Edwards, G. D.

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

Ensminger, R. L.

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

Goldman, C. R.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Hale, G. M.

Hass, M.

Hojerslev, N. K.

N. K. Hojerslev, U. Copenhagen, Report 26 (1974); N. K. Hojerslev, SCOR/UNESCO Proc. Italy (1979).

Hulbert, E. O.

Hulburt, E. O.

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 321 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, M. M.

James, H. R.

G. L. Clark, H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 39, 43 (1939).
[CrossRef]

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. 31, 1 (1938).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Nature 166, 111 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968); Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

Kopelevich, V. O.

V. O. Kopelevich, Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 391 (1976).

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

Lenoble, J.

J. Lenoble, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 806 (1956).

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, C. R. Acad. Sci. 240, 954 (1955).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielson, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974).

Patel, C. K. N.

Petty, C. C.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 72–78, (1970).

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 321 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 4 (1961).

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, in The Sea, Vol. 2, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, 1976).

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Saint-Guilly, B.

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, C. R. Acad. Sci. 240, 954 (1955).

Sawyer, W. R.

W. R. Sawyer, Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish., New Ser. 7, 74 (1931).

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 60 (1979).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 83 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews, Vol. 1, K. C. Smith, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, S. A.

Tam, A. C.

Tyler, J. E.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 83 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1390 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews, Vol. 1, K. C. Smith, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, in The Sea, Vol. 2, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962).

Waring, R. C.

Wilson, W. H.

Zepp, R. G.

R. G. Zepp, D. M. Cline, Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 359 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (2)

J. Lenoble, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 806 (1956).

J. Lenoble, B. Saint-Guilly, C. R. Acad. Sci. 240, 954 (1955).

Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish., New Ser. (1)

W. R. Sawyer, Contrib. Can. Biol. Fish., New Ser. 7, 74 (1931).

Deep Sea Res. (1)

G. Kullenberg, Deep Sea Res. 15, 423 (1968).

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. G. Zepp, D. M. Cline, Environ. Sci. Technol. 11, 359 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 321 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 260 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. G. Jerlov, Nature 166, 111 (1950).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

V. O. Kopelevich, Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 391 (1976).

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 60 (1979).

R. C. Smith, R. L. Ensminger, R. W. Austin, J. D. Bailey, G. D. Edwards, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 208, 27 (1979).

Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 72–78 (1)

T. J. Petzold, Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 72–78, (1970).

Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. (1)

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. 31, 1 (1938).

Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. (2)

F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 63 (1961); F. A. J. Armstrong, G. T. Boalch, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 41, 591 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, Union Geol. Geophys. Inst. Mon. 10, 4 (1961).

Other (9)

J. E. Tyler, R. W. Preisendorfer, in The Sea, Vol. 2, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, 1976).

A. Morel, in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. Steeman Nielson, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974).

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews, Vol. 1, K. C. Smith, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968); Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

R. W. Austin, SCOR Discover Expedition, Scripps Inst. Oceangr. Ref. 73-16, J. E. Tyler, Ed. (1973).

J. E. Tyler, Ed., SCOR Discover Expedition Data Report, Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. No. 73-16 (1973).

N. K. Hojerslev, U. Copenhagen, Report 26 (1974); N. K. Hojerslev, SCOR/UNESCO Proc. Italy (1979).

J. Calkins, CIAP Monograph 5, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (1975).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Total absorption coefficient for pure freshwater [aw(λ) (m−1)] vs wavelength [λ(nm)] as given by various authors: solid line, Morel and Prieur8; dashed line, Tam and Patel10; ▼, Querry et al.7; 1, 2, Hass and Davisson9; λ, Sawyer26 ; +, Dawson and Hulburt27 (200–400 nm) and Hulburt28 (400–700 nm); ▲, Lenoble and Saint-Guilly31; □, James and Birge29; ○, Clark and James30; △, Curcio and Petty40; ●, Sullivan32; ■, Armstrong and Boalch.22

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance [Kw(λ) (m−1)] vs wavelength [λ(nm)] as determined by various authors for clear ocean waters: ●, (350–700 nm), present work plus Smith and Baker34; ●, (300–350 nm) Smith and Baker16; ■, +, and ×, present work; ◇, Jerlov37 and Hojerslev38; □, Calkins39; ▼, Jerlov water type I.2

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance [ K min s w ( λ ) ( m - 1 )] vs wavelength [λ(nm)] as derived from various sources: values of K min s w ( λ ) derived using Eq. (6) from aw(λ) data of Morel and Prieur,8 +, Tam and Patel,10 ×, and others (dashed lines) as given in Fig. 1; measured values of Kw(λ) for clear ocean waters (with the same symbols) as given in Fig. 2; solid curve, our selected estimate of Kw(λ) for clear ocean waters (see text for discussion).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance [K(λ)(m−1)] vs wavelength [(nm)]. Solid curves, measured values of K(λ) from ocean waters of different chlorophyll concentrations. Data points, K min s w ( λ ) values derived using Eq. (6) from aw(λ) data given (with same symbols) in Fig. 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Irradiance for Clearest Ocean Waters [ k w s w ( λ )] and Absorption [aw(λ)] and Scattering [ b m s w ( λ ) , b m f w ( λ )] Coefficients for Pure Water

Tables Icon

Table II Diffuse Attenuation [ K w s w ( λ )] and Absorption Coefficient [aw(λ)] Compared to Total Backscattering Coefficient b b s w ( λ ) = B · b s w ( λ ) = B · b m s w ( λ ) + B · b p ( λ 0 ) · ( λ / λ 0 n ) for Zero Particle Scattering (bp = 0) and for Particle Scattering with Wavelength Dependence of n = 0 and n = −1

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( λ , z ) = E ( λ , 0 - ) exp [ - K ( λ ) · z ] ,
c K + b f > K = D · a + b b > a + b b > a ,
c = c w + b p + a p + a y ,
c w = a w + b m ,
K w f w a w + ½ b m f w ,
K min s w = a w + ½ b m s w .
B · b = B · b m s w + B · b p ( λ 0 ) · ( λ λ 0 ) n ,
K min s w = a w + ½ b m s w + 0.0010 ( λ 515 ) n .
a w K w - ½ b m .
K w ( λ ) = - 1 E ( z ) d E ( z ) d z = - 1 z 2 - z 1 ln E ( z 2 ) E ( z 1 ) .

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