Abstract

This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of a method of sensing temperature with optical fibers with the radiation thermally generated within the fiber. Using quartz fibers it is possible to read temperatures in the range from room temperature to over 1000°C. We have demonstrated operation as low as 135°C using nonoptimum fibers and detectors. The method also allows the determination of the location and length of a hot spot along the fiber. The purpose of this type of sensor is to monitor the development of hot spots in electrical machinery, such as generators and transformers, where conventional measurement techniques cannot be effectively applied. If such optical fibers can be incorporated in the manufacturing process of electrical equipment, these temperature monitors may contribute in avoiding catastrophic breakdown.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,151,747 (May1979).
  2. M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Measurement of Temperature with Optical Fibers Using Transmission Intensity Effects,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics Conference, Anaheim (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1979).
  3. M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,203,326 (May1980).
  4. M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, ISA Trans. 19, 55 (1980).
  5. M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Temperature Sensing in Optical Fibers Using Cladding and Jacket Loss Effects” (submitted to Applied Optics).
  6. M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 35.

1980 (1)

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, ISA Trans. 19, 55 (1980).

Brandt, G. B.

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, ISA Trans. 19, 55 (1980).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,203,326 (May1980).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,151,747 (May1979).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Measurement of Temperature with Optical Fibers Using Transmission Intensity Effects,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics Conference, Anaheim (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1979).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Temperature Sensing in Optical Fibers Using Cladding and Jacket Loss Effects” (submitted to Applied Optics).

Garbuny, M.

M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 35.

Gottlieb, M.

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, ISA Trans. 19, 55 (1980).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Temperature Sensing in Optical Fibers Using Cladding and Jacket Loss Effects” (submitted to Applied Optics).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,203,326 (May1980).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Measurement of Temperature with Optical Fibers Using Transmission Intensity Effects,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics Conference, Anaheim (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1979).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,151,747 (May1979).

ISA Trans. (1)

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, ISA Trans. 19, 55 (1980).

Other (5)

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Temperature Sensing in Optical Fibers Using Cladding and Jacket Loss Effects” (submitted to Applied Optics).

M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 35.

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,151,747 (May1979).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, “Measurement of Temperature with Optical Fibers Using Transmission Intensity Effects,” in Proceedings, Electro-Optics Conference, Anaheim (Industrial and Scientific Conference Management, Chicago, 1979).

M. Gottlieb, G. B. Brandt, U.S. Patent4,203,326 (May1980).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal radiation guided by optical fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal variation with absorption constant for several values of L and 10-cm long hot spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal variation with hot spot-to-detector distance for 10-cm long hot spot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of hot spot location L1 from ratio of signals at both fiber ends.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative power radiated from blackbody for several hot spot lengths from l0 to 8l0, λ cutoff = 1 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Determination of temperature by two-color measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature response of 2-mm diam glass shop quartz fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature response of 2-mm diam Pyrex fiber.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature dependence of thermal radiation absorption in 2-mm diam glass shop quartz fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temperature response of 1-mm diam Quartz Products QSF-1000B fiber with Ge detector.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temperature response of Quartz Products QSF-1000C fiber with Judson J-16 Ge detector and RCA C30808 Si detector.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Blackbody Radiation Power

Tables Icon

Table II Minimum Detectable Temperatures for Several Types of Detector with 1-mm2 Sensitive Area

Equations (16)

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P = λ 0 λ f ɛ ( λ , T ) C 1 λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ W / cm 2 ,
0 C 1 λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ .
P = 0 l α W exp ( - α l ) d l = W [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] .
ɛ = [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] .
ɛ α l ,
θ c = sin - 1 n clad n core ,
1 - sin θ c = 1 - n clad n core .
P = ( π D 2 4 ) ( 1 - n clad n core ) [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] exp ( - α L ) × λ 0 λ f C 1 λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ W ,
F = [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] exp ( - α L ) .
α m = - 1 l ln L L + l ,
P ( T ) = 3.08 × 10 - 5 λ 0 λ f C 1 λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ W .
S 1 = exp ( - α L 1 ) [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] · G · ( Planck integral ) , S 2 = exp ( - α L 2 ) [ 1 - exp ( - α l ) ] · G · ( Planck integral ) ,
S 1 S 2 = exp [ - α ( L 1 - L 2 ) ] ,
L 1 = 1 / 2 L - 1 2 α ln ( S 1 S 2 ) .
S ( λ f 2 ) S ( λ f 1 ) = λ f 1 λ f 2 C 1 / λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 / λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ λ 0 λ f 1 C 1 / λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 / λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ .
l = P 1 ( λ f 1 ) α ( π D 2 4 ) ( 1 - n clad n core ) exp ( - α L 1 ) λ 0 λ f 1 C 1 / λ 5 [ exp ( C 2 / λ T ) - 1 ] - 1 d λ .

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