Abstract

A technique for measuring reflectance factors in diurnal and intermittent cloud insolation conditions using hand-held radiometers has been developed. Simultaneously collected reference panel and total insolation measurements were obtained during the South Texas summer growing season (April and May 1980) at Weslaco, Tex., using the GSFC MARK2 three-band hand-held radiometer. The estimated reflectance factors of four reference panels using the hand-held radiometer agreed closely with the expected reflectance as measured with a laboratory spectrophotometer over a wide range of insolation readings (from 20 to 91 mW/cm 2). These results indicate that this technique could prove useful for achieving uniform reflectance factor measurements for remote sensing studies.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Nicodemus, Appl. Opt. 9, 1474 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. J. Kauth, G. S. Thomas, in Proceedings, Machine Processing of Remote Sensing Data, IEEE Cat. 76, Ch. 1103-1 MPRSD (1976).
  3. A. J. Richardson, C. L. Wiegand, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 1541 (1977).
  4. D. R. Thompson, O. A. Wehmanen, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 201 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. K. T. Kriebel, Appl. Opt. 17, 253 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).
  8. M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).
  9. S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.
  11. D. B. Judd, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 445 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).
  14. K. J. Brenda, D. S. Hanson, Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1971).

1981 (1)

S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (4)

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

D. R. Thompson, O. A. Wehmanen, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 201 (1980).

J. A. Aase, F. H. Siddoway, Agron. J. 72, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

1979 (1)

B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. J. Richardson, C. L. Wiegand, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 1541 (1977).

1975 (1)

R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. J. Brenda, D. S. Hanson, Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1971).

1970 (1)

1967 (1)

Aase, J. A.

J. A. Aase, F. H. Siddoway, Agron. J. 72, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Berry, J. K.

R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Biehl, L. L.

B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Brenda, K. J.

K. J. Brenda, D. S. Hanson, Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1971).

Brown, M. A.

S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Duggin, M. J.

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

Hanson, D. S.

K. J. Brenda, D. S. Hanson, Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1971).

Jones, W. H.

C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.

Judd, D. B.

Kauth, R. J.

R. J. Kauth, G. S. Thomas, in Proceedings, Machine Processing of Remote Sensing Data, IEEE Cat. 76, Ch. 1103-1 MPRSD (1976).

Kimes, D. S.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

Kley, W. A.

C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.

Kriebel, K. T.

Lewis, J. K.

S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nicodemus, F. E.

Oliver, R. E.

R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, K. J.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

Richardson, A. J.

A. J. Richardson, C. L. Wiegand, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 1541 (1977).

Robinson, B. F.

B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Siddoway, F. H.

J. A. Aase, F. H. Siddoway, Agron. J. 72, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. A.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sunstrom, G. J.

C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.

Thomas, G. S.

R. J. Kauth, G. S. Thomas, in Proceedings, Machine Processing of Remote Sensing Data, IEEE Cat. 76, Ch. 1103-1 MPRSD (1976).

Thompson, D. R.

D. R. Thompson, O. A. Wehmanen, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 201 (1980).

Tucker, C. J.

C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.

Waller, S. S.

S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wehmanen, O. A.

D. R. Thompson, O. A. Wehmanen, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 201 (1980).

Wiegand, C. L.

A. J. Richardson, C. L. Wiegand, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 1541 (1977).

Agron. J. (1)

J. A. Aase, F. H. Siddoway, Agron. J. 72, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1)

K. J. Brenda, D. S. Hanson, Bendix Aerospace System Division, BSR 3085 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Range Manage. (1)

S. S. Waller, M. A. Brown, J. K. Lewis, J. Range Manage. 34, 105 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. E. Oliver, J. K. Berry, J. A. Smith, Opt. Eng. 14, 244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (4)

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

A. J. Richardson, C. L. Wiegand, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 1541 (1977).

D. R. Thompson, O. A. Wehmanen, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 45, 201 (1980).

Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Other (2)

C. J. Tucker, W. H. Jones, W. A. Kley, G. J. Sunstrom, NASA Tech. Mem. 80641 (1980), p. 30.

R. J. Kauth, G. S. Thomas, in Proceedings, Machine Processing of Remote Sensing Data, IEEE Cat. 76, Ch. 1103-1 MPRSD (1976).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MARK2 hand-held radiometer configuration used for obtaining RED and RIR measurements of reference reflectance panels. M776 solarmeter position on top of the MARK2 hand-held sensor module is shown. Three reflectance disks used to obtain the field of view response characteristics of the MARK2 radiometer are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scatter diagram of MARK2 readings in the visible red band (RED) and reflective infrared (RIR) for four reference panels, bare soil, and cotton canopy taken in April and May 1980 at Weslaco, Tex. Data were collected between 09:30 and 16:30 under varying cloud conditions. FOV = 24°, and the distance from the sensor head to the panels was 0.51 m. Upper line fits reference panel readings on a bare soil background at the Weslaco Research Farm (18 Apr. 1980), and the bottom line fits reference panel readings on a grass lawn at the Weslaco Research Center (25 Apr. 80).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter diagram of the square root of the sum of the square of the MARK2 RED and RIR readings for four reference panels taken 18 Apr. 1980 at Weslaco, Tex. against insolation readings from a M776 solarmeter. MARK2 FOV = 24°, and the distance from the sensor head to the panels was 0.51 m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram illustrating principle of using the reference panel line to obtain XRED and XRIR indices that are used with M776 insolation values for determining bidirectional reflectance factor of plant, soil, shadow, or water field samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reference panel bidirection reflectance (cross signs) computed from MARK2 RED reading on 18 Apr. 1980 over a wide range of insolation readings due to varying cloud conditions and solar zenith angle as compared with reference panel bihemispherical reflectance (horizontal solid line) measured by a laboratory spectrophotometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same as Fig. 5 except for MARK2 RIR readings on 18 Apr. 1980.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Bihemispherical Reflectance Measurement in the MARK2 Visible (RED) and Reflective Infrared (RIR) Spectral Bands for Four Reflectance Reference Panelsa

Tables Icon

Table II Reference Panel Statistics, Number of Readings N, Sample Coefficient r, and Regression Coefficient (Ko, Kl, Ao, and Al) Obtained for the Six Measurement Dates in this Studya

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R v = R E D s R E D r R r ,
R i R I R s R I R r R r
R E D r = K l R I R r .
INDEX = ( R E D r 2 + R I R r 2 ) 1 / 2 .
X R E D = R E D s ( 1 + 1 / K l 2 ) 1 / 2 .
X R I R = R I R s ( K l 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 .

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