Abstract

A computer software system for performing interferometric fringe analysis interactively (FAI) is described. FAI is based on a general-purpose image-processing system running on a DEC PDP-11. The images contain 144 × 144 pixels with 64 gray levels. FAI permits manual definition of difficult fringe-pattern boundaries. The fringes are traced by an algorithm which makes use of the 2-D gray-level image information. The user can interactively guide the system and correct errors. The application of the system to analyzing moiré fringes defining eardrum shape is described.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Balasubramanian, G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 180 (1980).
  2. N. A. Massie, Appl. Opt. 19, 154 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Mastner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 926 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1978).
  5. S. Nakadate, T. Yatagai, H. Saito, Appl. Opt. 19, 1879 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Kamegai, G. T. Carpluk, “Data Reduction Scheme for Laser Doppler Interferometers” NTIS Report UCID-16621, U. California, Livermore (1974).
  7. O. A. Levin, B. B. Sokolov, Ind. Lab 43, 1719 (1977).
  8. D. A. Chambless, J. A. Broadway, Exp. Mech. 19, 286 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Snyder, Appl. Opt. 19, 1223 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. H. Kaufmann, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 207 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Hot, C. Durou, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 144 (1980).
  12. B. Ineichen, P. Eglin, R. Dandliker, Appl. Opt. 19, 2191 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. M. Kreis, H. Kreitlow, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1980).
  14. E. Bernal-G, J. Loomis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 126, 143 (1977).
  15. W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).
  16. W. Augustyn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 128 (1979).
  17. K. H. Womack et al., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 134 (1979).
  18. K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).
  19. F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, “Microprocessor-Controlled Hologram analysis,” in Proceedings, IEEE International Optical Computers Conference (IEEE, New York, 1979), p. 159.
  20. A. T. Glassman, C. E. Orr, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 64 (1979).
  21. H. D. Jones, Computer Reduction of Holographic Interferograms, NTIS Report SAND-77-8236, Sandia Labs., Livermore, Calif. (1977).
  22. R. K. Müller, L. R. Saackel, Exp. Mech. 19, 245 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. S. Poulsen, R. deB. Johnston, W. P. Storey, in Proceedings, Fourth Man-Computer Communications Conference, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (1975), pp. 10.1–10.4.
  26. R. S. Poulsen, L. H. Oliver, in Proceedings, CIPS Session, Canadian Computer Conference, Edmonton (1978), pp. 427–433.
  27. S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, A72 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, A88 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. R. J. Funnell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, AS9 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. W. R. J. Funnell, C. A. Laszlo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1461 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (10)

N. Balasubramanian, G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 180 (1980).

N. A. Massie, Appl. Opt. 19, 154 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mastner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 926 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Snyder, Appl. Opt. 19, 1223 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Kaufmann, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hot, C. Durou, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 144 (1980).

B. Ineichen, P. Eglin, R. Dandliker, Appl. Opt. 19, 2191 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Kreis, H. Kreitlow, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1980).

S. Nakadate, T. Yatagai, H. Saito, Appl. Opt. 19, 1879 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).

1979 (7)

A. T. Glassman, C. E. Orr, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 64 (1979).

R. K. Müller, L. R. Saackel, Exp. Mech. 19, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Chambless, J. A. Broadway, Exp. Mech. 19, 286 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Augustyn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 128 (1979).

K. H. Womack et al., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 134 (1979).

W. R. J. Funnell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, AS9 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

W. R. J. Funnell, C. A. Laszlo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1978).

1977 (2)

E. Bernal-G, J. Loomis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 126, 143 (1977).

O. A. Levin, B. B. Sokolov, Ind. Lab 43, 1719 (1977).

1975 (2)

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, A72 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, A88 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Augustyn, W.

W. Augustyn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 128 (1979).

Augustyn, W. H.

W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).

Balasubramanian, N.

N. Balasubramanian, G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 180 (1980).

Bernal-G, E.

E. Bernal-G, J. Loomis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 126, 143 (1977).

Broadway, J. A.

D. A. Chambless, J. A. Broadway, Exp. Mech. 19, 286 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Carpluk, G. T.

M. Kamegai, G. T. Carpluk, “Data Reduction Scheme for Laser Doppler Interferometers” NTIS Report UCID-16621, U. California, Livermore (1974).

Chambless, D. A.

D. A. Chambless, J. A. Broadway, Exp. Mech. 19, 286 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dandliker, R.

DeBell, G. W.

N. Balasubramanian, G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 180 (1980).

Durou, C.

J. P. Hot, C. Durou, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 144 (1980).

Eglin, P.

Forbes, D.

K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).

Funnell, W. R. J.

W. R. J. Funnell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, AS9 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. R. J. Funnell, C. A. Laszlo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glassman, A. T.

A. T. Glassman, C. E. Orr, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 64 (1979).

Grishin, M. P.

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hot, J. P.

J. P. Hot, C. Durou, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 144 (1980).

Ineichen, B.

Johnston, R. deB.

R. S. Poulsen, R. deB. Johnston, W. P. Storey, in Proceedings, Fourth Man-Computer Communications Conference, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (1975), pp. 10.1–10.4.

Jones, H. D.

H. D. Jones, Computer Reduction of Holographic Interferograms, NTIS Report SAND-77-8236, Sandia Labs., Livermore, Calif. (1977).

Kamegai, M.

M. Kamegai, G. T. Carpluk, “Data Reduction Scheme for Laser Doppler Interferometers” NTIS Report UCID-16621, U. California, Livermore (1974).

Kaufmann, G. H.

G. H. Kaufmann, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. M.

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, A72 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, A88 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kreis, T. M.

T. M. Kreis, H. Kreitlow, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1980).

Kreitlow, H.

T. M. Kreis, H. Kreitlow, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1980).

Kurbanov, S. M.

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lanzl, F.

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1978).

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, “Microprocessor-Controlled Hologram analysis,” in Proceedings, IEEE International Optical Computers Conference (IEEE, New York, 1979), p. 159.

Laszlo, C. A.

W. R. J. Funnell, C. A. Laszlo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, O. A.

O. A. Levin, B. B. Sokolov, Ind. Lab 43, 1719 (1977).

Loomis, J.

E. Bernal-G, J. Loomis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 126, 143 (1977).

Markelov, V. P.

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Massie, N. A.

Mastner, J.

J. Mastner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 926 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R. K.

R. K. Müller, L. R. Saackel, Exp. Mech. 19, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nakadate, S.

Oliver, L. H.

R. S. Poulsen, L. H. Oliver, in Proceedings, CIPS Session, Canadian Computer Conference, Edmonton (1978), pp. 427–433.

Orr, C. E.

A. T. Glassman, C. E. Orr, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 64 (1979).

Poulsen, R. S.

R. S. Poulsen, R. deB. Johnston, W. P. Storey, in Proceedings, Fourth Man-Computer Communications Conference, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (1975), pp. 10.1–10.4.

R. S. Poulsen, L. H. Oliver, in Proceedings, CIPS Session, Canadian Computer Conference, Edmonton (1978), pp. 427–433.

Rosenfeld, A. H.

W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).

Saackel, L. R.

R. K. Müller, L. R. Saackel, Exp. Mech. 19, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

Schlüter, M.

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1978).

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, “Microprocessor-Controlled Hologram analysis,” in Proceedings, IEEE International Optical Computers Conference (IEEE, New York, 1979), p. 159.

Seguchi, Y.

Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. J.

Sokolov, B. B.

O. A. Levin, B. B. Sokolov, Ind. Lab 43, 1719 (1977).

Sokolov, V. A.

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Storey, W. P.

R. S. Poulsen, R. deB. Johnston, W. P. Storey, in Proceedings, Fourth Man-Computer Communications Conference, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (1975), pp. 10.1–10.4.

Tomita, Y.

Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tonndorf, J.

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, A72 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, A88 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, K. L.

K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).

Watanabe, M.

Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Womack, K. H.

K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).

K. H. Womack et al., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 134 (1979).

Yatagai, T.

Zanoni, C. A.

W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Exp. Mech. (3)

R. K. Müller, L. R. Saackel, Exp. Mech. 19, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Seguchi, Y. Tomita, M. Watanabe, Exp. Mech. 19, 362 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Chambless, J. A. Broadway, Exp. Mech. 19, 286 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Lab (1)

O. A. Levin, B. B. Sokolov, Ind. Lab 43, 1719 (1977).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (4)

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, A72 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Khanna, J. Tonndorf, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 58, A88 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. R. J. Funnell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, AS9 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. R. J. Funnell, C. A. Laszlo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63, 1461 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) (1)

M. P. Grishin, S. M. Kurbanov, V. P. Markelov, V. A. Sokolov, J. Appl. Spectros. (USA) 20, 682 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

G. H. Kaufmann, Opt. Laser Technol. 12, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (10)

J. P. Hot, C. Durou, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 144 (1980).

A. T. Glassman, C. E. Orr, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 64 (1979).

N. Balasubramanian, G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 180 (1980).

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1978).

T. M. Kreis, H. Kreitlow, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1980).

E. Bernal-G, J. Loomis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 126, 143 (1977).

W. H. Augustyn, A. H. Rosenfeld, C. A. Zanoni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 153, 146 (1978).

W. Augustyn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 128 (1979).

K. H. Womack et al., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 192, 134 (1979).

K. H. Womack, K. L. Underwood, D. Forbes, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 230, 168 (1980).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Mastner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 926 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Kamegai, G. T. Carpluk, “Data Reduction Scheme for Laser Doppler Interferometers” NTIS Report UCID-16621, U. California, Livermore (1974).

F. Lanzl, M. Schlüter, “Microprocessor-Controlled Hologram analysis,” in Proceedings, IEEE International Optical Computers Conference (IEEE, New York, 1979), p. 159.

H. D. Jones, Computer Reduction of Holographic Interferograms, NTIS Report SAND-77-8236, Sandia Labs., Livermore, Calif. (1977).

R. S. Poulsen, R. deB. Johnston, W. P. Storey, in Proceedings, Fourth Man-Computer Communications Conference, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (1975), pp. 10.1–10.4.

R. S. Poulsen, L. H. Oliver, in Proceedings, CIPS Session, Canadian Computer Conference, Edmonton (1978), pp. 427–433.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Display of digitized moiré photograph of a casting of a cat eardrum. Image consists of 144 × 144 picture elements (pixels), each having sixty-four possible gray levels. Black margin several pixels wide has been placed around the image, and the top and bottom margins have been used to store certain information about the image. Manually defined boundary has been placed around the pars tensa of the eardrum. The part of the eardrum above and to the right of this boundary is the pars flaccida, which is excluded from the subsequent processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same eardrum image as in Fig. 1, with the area outside the boundary removed. Computer has identified points on the fringes lying along a line running upward from the manually defined center of the fringe pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of the scheme used for labeling pixels and determining possible directions to move in tracing contours. Seven contours shown were actually derived from the image used as an example in the other figures. Large cross indicates the manually defined center of the fringe pattern. Upper part of the figure shows how pixels are numbered locally from 1 to 8. Shaded boxes indicate the five pixels that would be considered as possible moves from the current position, based on the direction from the center. Pixel 2 would be labeled as the forward direction. Neighboring pixels 4, 3, 1, and 8 would be considered as possible moves, with pixel 4 being rejected immediately because it actually represents a slightly backward move.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

First three fringes traced by the computer, with an error near the end of the third.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Complete set of dark fringes traced by the computer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Complete set of light fringes traced by the computer.

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