Abstract

Modifications to the atmospheric transmission and radiation code lowtran5 are presented which include (1) an increase in the spectral resolution from 20 to 5 cm−1, (2) the addition of temperature-dependent molecular absorption coefficients, (3) the use of a multiparameter Doppler-Lorentz band model for calculation of molecular transmittance, and (4) the use of the Curtis-Godson approximation for multilayered paths. Comparisons of predictions using the lowtran5 5-cm−1 band model option to measured transmittance and radiance data are also presented.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.
  2. J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.
  3. J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran3B,” AFGL-TR-76-0258, AD A040 701 (1976), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.
  4. J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran3,” AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AD A017 734, (1975), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.
  5. J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran2,” AFCRL-TR-72-0745, AD 763 721 (1972), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.
  6. D. C. Robertson, L. S. Bernstein, R. Haimes, “Addition of a 5-cm−1 Spectral Resolution Band Model Option to lowtran5,” ARI-RR-232 (Oct.1980), Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, Mass.
  7. R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Anding, “Band Model Methods for Computing Atmospheric Slant-Path Molecular Absorption,” Report 7142-12-T (1967), Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  9. A. J. LaRocca, R. E. Turner, “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Methods of Calculation,” Report 107600-10-T (June1975), Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
  10. T. Aoki, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 24, 191 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Gruenzel, Appl. Opt. 17, 2591 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  12. J. H. Pierluissi, K. Tomiyama, R. B. Gomez, Appl. Opt. 18, 1607 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. N. Plass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 690 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. M. Goody, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Mayer, “Methods of Opacity Calculations,” Los Alamos, LA-647 (31Oct.1947).
  16. C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).
  17. M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,” NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (Dec.1965).
  18. J. Humlicek, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 309 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. R. Curtis, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. L. Godson, J. Meteorol. 12, 123 (1955).
  21. D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, R. R. Patty, G. E. Bartky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 267 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. E. Burch, “Semi-Annual Technical Report Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases,” Aeronutronic Report U-4784, contract F19628-69-C-0163, Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif. (15May1969).
  23. D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, “Final Technical Report—Absorption by CO2 Between 2400 and 3450 cm−1,” Aeronutronic Report Y-4910, contract 952672 (Feb.1971), Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif.
  24. S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).
  25. J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 195 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 581 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Blay, General Dynamics; private communication.
  28. L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, J. A. Conant, B. P. Sandford, Appl. Opt. 18, 2454 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. B. Sandford, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; private communication.
  30. B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Aoki, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 24, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (3)

R. R. Gruenzel, Appl. Opt. 17, 2591 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. Humlicek, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 309 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 195 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1965 (1)

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,” NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (Dec.1965).

1958 (1)

1955 (1)

W. L. Godson, J. Meteorol. 12, 123 (1955).

1952 (2)

A. R. Curtis, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Goody, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,” NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (Dec.1965).

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Anding, D.

D. Anding, “Band Model Methods for Computing Atmospheric Slant-Path Molecular Absorption,” Report 7142-12-T (1967), Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 24, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bartky, G. E.

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, L. S.

L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, J. A. Conant, B. P. Sandford, Appl. Opt. 18, 2454 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Robertson, L. S. Bernstein, R. Haimes, “Addition of a 5-cm−1 Spectral Resolution Band Model Option to lowtran5,” ARI-RR-232 (Oct.1980), Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, Mass.

Blay, D.

D. Blay, General Dynamics; private communication.

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, R. R. Patty, G. E. Bartky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 267 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, “Final Technical Report—Absorption by CO2 Between 2400 and 3450 cm−1,” Aeronutronic Report Y-4910, contract 952672 (Feb.1971), Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Burch, “Semi-Annual Technical Report Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases,” Aeronutronic Report U-4784, contract F19628-69-C-0163, Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif. (15May1969).

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Clough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Conant, J. A.

Conrath, B. J.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, A. R.

A. R. Curtis, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Fenn, R. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Gamache, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godson, W. L.

W. L. Godson, J. Meteorol. 12, 123 (1955).

Gomez, R. B.

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Gruenzel, R. R.

Gryvnak, D. A.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, R. R. Patty, G. E. Bartky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 267 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, “Final Technical Report—Absorption by CO2 Between 2400 and 3450 cm−1,” Aeronutronic Report Y-4910, contract 952672 (Feb.1971), Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif.

Haimes, R.

D. C. Robertson, L. S. Bernstein, R. Haimes, “Addition of a 5-cm−1 Spectral Resolution Band Model Option to lowtran5,” ARI-RR-232 (Oct.1980), Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, Mass.

Hanel, R. A.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Humlicek, J.

J. Humlicek, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 309 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Kunde, V. G.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

LaRocca, A. J.

A. J. LaRocca, R. E. Turner, “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Methods of Calculation,” Report 107600-10-T (June1975), Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Ludwig, C. B.

C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).

Malkmus, W.

C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).

Mayer, H.

H. Mayer, “Methods of Opacity Calculations,” Los Alamos, LA-647 (31Oct.1947).

McClatchey, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran3,” AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AD A017 734, (1975), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran3B,” AFGL-TR-76-0258, AD A040 701 (1976), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran2,” AFCRL-TR-72-0745, AD 763 721 (1972), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Patty, R. R.

Pierluissi, J. H.

Plass, G. N.

Prabhakara, C.

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Reardon, J. E.

C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).

Robertson, D. C.

L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, J. A. Conant, B. P. Sandford, Appl. Opt. 18, 2454 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Robertson, L. S. Bernstein, R. Haimes, “Addition of a 5-cm−1 Spectral Resolution Band Model Option to lowtran5,” ARI-RR-232 (Oct.1980), Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, Mass.

Rothman, L. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandford, B.

B. Sandford, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; private communication.

Sandford, B. P.

Searl, J. E.

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 195 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran3B,” AFGL-TR-76-0258, AD A040 701 (1976), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran2,” AFCRL-TR-72-0745, AD 763 721 (1972), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran3,” AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AD A017 734, (1975), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran3B,” AFGL-TR-76-0258, AD A040 701 (1976), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,” NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (Dec.1965).

Susskind, J.

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 195 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. A. L.

C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).

Tipping, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

Tomiyama, K.

Turner, R. E.

A. J. LaRocca, R. E. Turner, “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Methods of Calculation,” Report 107600-10-T (June1975), Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

B. J. Conrath, R. A. Hanel, V. G. Kunde, C. Prabhakara, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 5832 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

W. L. Godson, J. Meteorol. 12, 123 (1955).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (4)

J. Humlicek, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 309 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 195 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. E. Searl, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 24, 191 (1980).
[CrossRef]

NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (1)

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, “Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables,” NBS Applied Mathematics Series 55 (Dec.1965).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

A. R. Curtis, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Goody, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 165 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

H. Mayer, “Methods of Opacity Calculations,” Los Alamos, LA-647 (31Oct.1947).

C. B. Ludwig, W. Malkmus, J. E. Reardon, J. A. L. Thomson, “Handbook of Infrared Radiation from Combustion Gases,” NASA Report SP-3080 (1973).

D. E. Burch, “Semi-Annual Technical Report Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases,” Aeronutronic Report U-4784, contract F19628-69-C-0163, Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif. (15May1969).

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, “Final Technical Report—Absorption by CO2 Between 2400 and 3450 cm−1,” Aeronutronic Report Y-4910, contract 952672 (Feb.1971), Philco-Ford Corp., Newport Beach, Calif.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical Lineshape for H2O Vapor; Application to the Continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapor, A. Depak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1980).

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. A. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran5,” AFGL-TR-80-0067, Feb.1980, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code lowtran4,” AFGL-TR-78-0053, AD A058 (1978), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Supplement lowtran3B,” AFGL-TR-76-0258, AD A040 701 (1976), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran3,” AFCRL-TR-75-0255, AD A017 734, (1975), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

J. E. A. Selby, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance from 0.25 to 28.5 μm: Computer Code lowtran2,” AFCRL-TR-72-0745, AD 763 721 (1972), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.

D. C. Robertson, L. S. Bernstein, R. Haimes, “Addition of a 5-cm−1 Spectral Resolution Band Model Option to lowtran5,” ARI-RR-232 (Oct.1980), Aerodyne Research, Inc., Bedford, Mass.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilations,” AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Jan.1973), Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Bedford, Mass.; L. S. Rothman, Appl. Opt. 20, 791 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Anding, “Band Model Methods for Computing Atmospheric Slant-Path Molecular Absorption,” Report 7142-12-T (1967), Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor.

A. J. LaRocca, R. E. Turner, “Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance: Methods of Calculation,” Report 107600-10-T (June1975), Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

D. Blay, General Dynamics; private communication.

B. Sandford, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory; private communication.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of calculated transmittance on the number of lines in a finite spectral interval.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the uniformly mixed gas molecular absorption coefficient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the uniformly mixed gas line density parameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the uniformly mixed gas molecular and continuum absorption coefficients in the band head region of the 4.3-μm CO2 band.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature dependence of the H2O molecular and continuum absorption coefficients.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependence of the H2O line density parameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) to General Dynamics transmission measurements for a 0.34-km horizontal path at sea level.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) to General Dynamics transmission measurements for a 2.51-km horizontal path at sea level.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) to General Dynamics transmission measurements for a 4.07-km horizontal path at sea level.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) and lowtran5 predictions to AFGL transmission measurements for a path from 5.48 km to space with a 12° zenith angle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) and lowtran5 predictions to AFGL transmission measurements for a path from 12.2 km to space with an 11° zenith angle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) and lowtran5 predictions to AFGL ocean background radiance measurements.29

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of lowtran5 (band model) predictions to nimbus 3 satellite measurements of background radiance over the Gulf of Mexico.30 Data displaced by +2.0 μW cm−1 sr−1 to facilitate comparison to calculation.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ = [ 1 - ( W ¯ s l / n d ) ] n ,
n = Δ ω / d ,
lim n τ = exp ( - W ¯ s l / d ) .
W s l = [ 2 γ D / ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 ] 0 x m · { 1 - exp [ - ( S u / γ D ) ( ln 2 / π ) 1 / 2 F ( x , y ) ] } d x ,
F ( x , y ) = y π - exp ( - t 2 ) y 2 + ( x - t ) 2 d t ,
x = ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 ( ω - ω 0 ) / γ D , y = ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 γ C / γ D ,
lim x F ( x , y ) = y π x 2 .
x l x m exp ( - β 2 / x 2 ) d x = β { exp ( - z m 2 ) z m - exp ( - z l 2 ) z l + π [ erf ( z m ) - erf ( z l ) ] } , β 2 = ( S u / γ D ) ( ln 2 / π ) 1 / 2 ( γ / π ) , z = β / x ,
lim y 0 W s l , D ( 2 / ln 2 ) 1 / 2 γ D ln [ 1 + ( ln 2 / 2 ) ( S u / γ D ) 2 ] .
( S / d ) u = i ( S / d ) i Δ u i ,
( γ / d ) ¯ = i ( γ / d ) i ( S / d ) i Δ u i / ( S / d ) u ,
S u / γ D = ( S / d ) u / ( γ D / d ) ¯ ,
n ¯ = Δ ω ( 1 / d ) ¯ .
τ = [ 1 - ( W ¯ s l / n d ) ] n exp ( - C m u ) ,
S / d = [ i S i ( T ) ] / Δ ω             1 / d = [ i S i ( T ) ] 2 / ( Δ ω 2 S / d ) ,
S i ( T ) = Q v ( T 0 ) Q r ( T 0 ) Q v ( T ) Q r ( T ) exp [ - E i ( T 0 - T ) / ( k T 0 T ) ] S i ( T 0 ) × { 1 - exp [ - h c ω i / ( k T ) ] } / { 1 - exp [ - h c ω i / ( k T 0 ) ] } ,
S / d u mix = ( m χ m i S i m ) / Δ ω , 1 / d u mix = ( m χ m i S i m ) 2 / ( Δ ω 2 S / d u mix ) .
M ¯ u mix = ( m M m χ m i S i m ) / ( m χ m i S i m ) ,
C m ( T , P , ω k ) = P P 0 T 0 T Δ ω π i k S / d ( ω i , T ) γ i 0 ( ω i - ω k ) 2 χ ( ω i - ω k ) ,

Metrics