Abstract

The possibility of accurate remote measurements of temperature and humidity using a three-wavelength differential absorption technique is discussed. Selection of water vapor absorption lines for the measurement promises highest accuracy for temperature measurements and also allows the simultaneous determination of absolute humidity. Preliminary measurements of average temperature and humidity over a 775-m long path using a continuously tunable infrared lidar are reported. For the temperature measurements a relative accuracy of 1.4°C was observed. The absolute error, however, is presently ~5°C due to inaccuracies in the wavelength selection of the lidar transmitter. Humidity was measured with a 1.5% relative error limited by return signal fluctuations. The method is feasible for depth resolved measurements of temperature and humidity.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 58, 519 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Appl. Opt. 10, 2665 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. DeLuisi, B. G. Schuster, R. K. Sato, Appl. Opt. 14, 1917 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meterol. 11, 108 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Cohen, J. A. Cooney, K. N. Geller, Appl. Opt. 15, 2896 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Cooney, M. Pina, Appl. Opt. 15, 602 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. Mason, Appl. Opt. 14, 76 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  10. H. I. Heaton, Astrophys. J. 212, 936 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. K. Schwemmer, T. D. Wilkerson, Appl. Opt. 18, 3539 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. R. Murray, D. D. Powell, J. E. van der Laan, Appl. Opt. 19, 1794 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.
  14. C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Abstract, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, Germany (1979), p. 185.
  15. E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, Appl. Opt. 18, 3474 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).
  18. R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meterol. 13, 71 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, AIAA-81-0377, AIAA Nineteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, St. Louis, Mo., 12 Jan. 1981.
  21. W. S. Benedict, R. F. Calfee, ESSA Professional Paper 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1967.
  22. D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.
  23. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, Postdeadline paper, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980).

1980 (1)

1979 (3)

1977 (1)

H. I. Heaton, Astrophys. J. 212, 936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

1975 (3)

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meterol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meterol. 11, 108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1964 (1)

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

1959 (1)

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

1954 (1)

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 58, 519 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W. S.

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

W. S. Benedict, R. F. Calfee, ESSA Professional Paper 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1967.

Browell, E. V.

Burch, D. E.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, AIAA-81-0377, AIAA Nineteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, St. Louis, Mo., 12 Jan. 1981.

Calfee, R. F.

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

W. S. Benedict, R. F. Calfee, ESSA Professional Paper 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1967.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Clough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Cohen, A.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Cohen, J. A. Cooney, K. N. Geller, Appl. Opt. 15, 2896 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooney, J.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meterol. 11, 108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, J. A.

Cupp, R. E.

DeLuisi, J. J.

Derr, V. E.

Dombrowski, M.

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351 (1954).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 58, 519 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Endemann, M.

M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, AIAA-81-0377, AIAA Nineteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, St. Louis, Mo., 12 Jan. 1981.

Farina, J.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Gates, D. M.

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

Geller, K.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geller, K. N.

Gill, R.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, D. W.

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

Heaton, H. I.

H. I. Heaton, Astrophys. J. 212, 936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kalshoven, J. E.

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.

Kaplan, L. D.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Killinger, D. K.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, Postdeadline paper, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980).

Korb, C. L.

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Abstract, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, Germany (1979), p. 185.

Mason, J. B.

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

McIlrath, T. J.

Menyuk, N.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, Postdeadline paper, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980).

Murray, E. R.

Pina, M.

Powell, D. D.

Rothman, L. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

Sato, R. K.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meterol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, B. G.

Schwemmer, G.

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.

Schwemmer, G. K.

Strauch, R. G.

van der Laan, J. E.

Weng, C. Y.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Abstract, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, Germany (1979), p. 185.

Wilkerson, T. D.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Astrophys. J. (1)

H. I. Heaton, Astrophys. J. 212, 936 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meterol. (3)

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, J. Appl. Meterol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meterol. 11, 108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meterol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 58, 519 (1953).
[CrossRef]

L. Elterman, J. Geophys. Res. 59, 351 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1)

D. M. Gates, R. F. Calfee, D. W. Hansen, W. S. Benedict, Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Monogr. (1964), p. 71.

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1973).

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, M. Dombrowski, G. Schwemmer, Abstract, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980), p. 68.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, Abstract, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, Germany (1979), p. 185.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, Postdeadline paper, Tenth International Laser Radar Conference, Silver Spring, Md. (1980).

M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, AIAA-81-0377, AIAA Nineteenth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, St. Louis, Mo., 12 Jan. 1981.

W. S. Benedict, R. F. Calfee, ESSA Professional Paper 2, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1967.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of temperature accuracy on absorbance A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the continuously tunable infrared lidar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

High resolution photoacoustic spectrum of H2O around 5650 cm−1 at different temperatures. The selected absorption lines are marked. The upper trace shows a simulation using the AFCRL tapes.16

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of the dependence of the logarithm of the ratio of the absorbances T* on the temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

High resolution atmospheric transmittance spectrum over a 775-m long path. The OPO linewidth is 0.1 cm−1. The OPO measured spectrum in the lower trace is compared with a simulation using the AFCRL tapes16 in the upper trace.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Lidar temperature measurement calibration. A total of 8.5-h data from different days are shown. Temperature data from a recording thermograph at the receiving telescope (solid line) were used for the calibration of lidar temperature measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Lidar measurement of temperature and absolute humidity from the morning of 11 Mar. 1980. Error bars due to return signal fluctuations are shown for each data point. Temperature data are compared with the thermograph recording.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Lidar measurement of temperature and absolute humidity from the night of 21 Feb. 1980. Error bars due to return signal fluctuations are shown for each data point. Temperature data are compared with the thermograph recording. During the measurement a warm front passed over the measurement site.

Equations (9)

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σ ( ν , T ) = S ( ν , T ) / π γ ( T ) ,
S ( ν , T ) = S ( ν , T 0 ) Q ( T 0 ) Q ( T ) · exp [ E 0 k ( 1 T 0 - 1 T ) ]
γ ( T ) = γ ( T 0 ) · ( T 0 / T ) n .
σ ( ν , T ) = σ ( ν , T 0 ) · ( T 0 T ) - n · Q ( T ) Q ( T 0 ) · exp [ E 0 k ( 1 T 0 - 1 T ) ] .
T = T 0 · { 1 - k T 0 / Δ E 0 1 + Δ n k T 0 / Δ E 0 · [ ln ( A 1 A 2 ) + ln ( σ 2 σ 1 ) ] } - 1 ,
T = C · ln ( A 1 A 2 ) + D ,
C = k T 0 2 Δ E 0 · ( 1 + Δ n · k T 0 Δ E 0 ) - 1 ,             D = C · ln ( σ 2 σ 1 ) + T 0 .
Δ T = k T 0 2 Δ E 0 · 1 S / N · [ i = 1 2 ( 1 + exp 2 A i A i 2 ) ] 1 / 2 .
Δ T 4 · k T 0 2 Δ E 0 · 1 S / N .

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