Abstract

The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. H. Kim., Appl. Opt. 12, 1454 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, Appl. Opt. 18, 1732 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. F. Bristow, Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 105 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of The Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979) pp. 397–417.
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. R. Barringer, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conferences on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, (American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 1977) pp. 778–781.
  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System, Final Report, NASA Contractor Report CR-141407, contract NAS6-2653, by Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Mass. (Oct.1975).
  9. C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.
  10. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. A. W. Hornig, D. Eastwood, “A Study of Marine Luminescence Signatures,” Part 1, NASA CR-114578, contract NAS2-6408, Baird-Atomic, Inc., Bedford, Mass. (Mar.1973).
  14. A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, “The Application of Laser Raman Scattering to Remote Sensing of Salinity and Turbidity,” Final Technical Report, Department of Chemical Sciences, Old Dominion U., Norfolk, Va., NASA Master Contract Agreement NAS1-11707, Task 33 (Aug.1975).
  15. J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.
  16. A. V. Zimmerman, F. W. Paul, R. J. Exton, “Research and Investigation of the Radiation Induced by a Laser Beam Incident on Sea Water,” Contractor Final Report CR-14519, NASA grant NSG-1096, Chesapeake College, Wye Mills, Md. (1976).
  17. C. M. Moreth, C. S. Yentsch, Limnol Oceanogr. 15, 313 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).
  19. C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. T. V. Kung, I. Itzkan, Appl. Opt. 15, 409 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

1979 (2)

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, Appl. Opt. 18, 1732 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. P. F. Bristow, Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

C. M. Moreth, C. S. Yentsch, Limnol Oceanogr. 15, 313 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Airth, R. L.

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backhaus, J.

J. Backhaus, in Marine Forecasting: Predictability and Modelling in Ocean Hydrodynamics, Elsevier Series 25, J. C. J. Nihoul, Ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1978), pp. 333–349.

Baker, J.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

Bandy, A. R.

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, “The Application of Laser Raman Scattering to Remote Sensing of Salinity and Turbidity,” Final Technical Report, Department of Chemical Sciences, Old Dominion U., Norfolk, Va., NASA Master Contract Agreement NAS1-11707, Task 33 (Aug.1975).

Barringer, A. R.

A. R. Barringer, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conferences on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, (American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 1977) pp. 778–781.

Beddard, G. S.

G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bressel, C.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.

Bristow, M.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of The Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979) pp. 397–417.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

Bristow, M. P. F.

M. P. F. Bristow, Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Buja-Bijunas, L.

Bundy, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

Caputo, B.

Davies, J. H.

A. R. Barringer, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conferences on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, (American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 1977) pp. 778–781.

Dick, R.

A. R. Barringer, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conferences on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, (American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 1977) pp. 778–781.

Eastwood, D.

A. W. Hornig, D. Eastwood, “A Study of Marine Luminescence Signatures,” Part 1, NASA CR-114578, contract NAS2-6408, Baird-Atomic, Inc., Bedford, Mass. (Mar.1973).

Exton, R. J.

A. V. Zimmerman, F. W. Paul, R. J. Exton, “Research and Investigation of the Radiation Induced by a Laser Beam Incident on Sea Water,” Contractor Final Report CR-14519, NASA grant NSG-1096, Chesapeake College, Wye Mills, Md. (1976).

Falciani, E.

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

Foery, R. F.

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

Frederick, E. B.

French, C. S.

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furtek, R.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of The Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979) pp. 397–417.

Gallis, D.

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, Appl. Opt. 18, 1732 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.

Hornig, A. W.

A. W. Hornig, D. Eastwood, “A Study of Marine Luminescence Signatures,” Part 1, NASA CR-114578, contract NAS2-6408, Baird-Atomic, Inc., Bedford, Mass. (Mar.1973).

Itzkan, I.

R. T. V. Kung, I. Itzkan, Appl. Opt. 15, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.

Kim, H. H.

Kung, R. T. V.

Leonard, D. A.

Moreth, C. M.

C. M. Moreth, C. S. Yentsch, Limnol Oceanogr. 15, 313 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of The Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979) pp. 397–417.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

Nunes, J. E.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.

O’Neil, R. A.

Paul, F. W.

A. V. Zimmerman, F. W. Paul, R. J. Exton, “Research and Investigation of the Radiation Induced by a Laser Beam Incident on Sea Water,” Contractor Final Report CR-14519, NASA grant NSG-1096, Chesapeake College, Wye Mills, Md. (1976).

Porter, G.

G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

Smith, J. H. C.

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swift, R. N.

Tredwell, C. J.

G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Virgin, H. I.

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yentsch, C. M.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

C. M. Moreth, C. S. Yentsch, Limnol Oceanogr. 15, 313 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J.

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

Zimmerman, A.

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, “The Application of Laser Raman Scattering to Remote Sensing of Salinity and Turbidity,” Final Technical Report, Department of Chemical Sciences, Old Dominion U., Norfolk, Va., NASA Master Contract Agreement NAS1-11707, Task 33 (Aug.1975).

Zimmerman, A. V.

A. V. Zimmerman, F. W. Paul, R. J. Exton, “Research and Investigation of the Radiation Induced by a Laser Beam Incident on Sea Water,” Contractor Final Report CR-14519, NASA grant NSG-1096, Chesapeake College, Wye Mills, Md. (1976).

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

Limnol Oceanogr. (1)

C. M. Moreth, C. S. Yentsch, Limnol Oceanogr. 15, 313 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (1)

G. S. Beddard, G. Porter, C. J. Tredwell, Nature London 258, 166 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Plant Physiol. (1)

C. S. French, J. H. C. Smith, H. I. Virgin, R. L. Airth, Plant Physiol. 31, 369 (1956).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

M. P. F. Bristow, Remote Sensing Environ. 7, 105 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on the Remote Sensing of The Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979) pp. 397–417.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” Report EPA-600/4-79-048, Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas (Aug.1979).

A. R. Barringer, J. H. Davies, R. Dick, in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conferences on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, (American Chemical Society, New Orleans, 1977) pp. 778–781.

Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System, Final Report, NASA Contractor Report CR-141407, contract NAS6-2653, by Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Mass. (Oct.1975).

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977) pp. 1259–1268.

J. Backhaus, in Marine Forecasting: Predictability and Modelling in Ocean Hydrodynamics, Elsevier Series 25, J. C. J. Nihoul, Ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1978), pp. 333–349.

A. W. Hornig, D. Eastwood, “A Study of Marine Luminescence Signatures,” Part 1, NASA CR-114578, contract NAS2-6408, Baird-Atomic, Inc., Bedford, Mass. (Mar.1973).

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, “The Application of Laser Raman Scattering to Remote Sensing of Salinity and Turbidity,” Final Technical Report, Department of Chemical Sciences, Old Dominion U., Norfolk, Va., NASA Master Contract Agreement NAS1-11707, Task 33 (Aug.1975).

J. Yungel, R. F. Foery, D. Gallis, E. Falciani, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Twenty-sixth Annual Technical Meeting, Philadelphia, 12–14 May 1980 (Institute of Environmental Sciences, Mt. Prospect, Ill., 1980, pp. 391–393.

A. V. Zimmerman, F. W. Paul, R. J. Exton, “Research and Investigation of the Radiation Induced by a Laser Beam Incident on Sea Water,” Contractor Final Report CR-14519, NASA grant NSG-1096, Chesapeake College, Wye Mills, Md. (1976).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elevation and plan view of the AOL illustrating the three major optical tiers and selected optical components. Lidar is located in the NASA Wallops Flight Center P-3A aircraft.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cutaway illustration of the AOL installed in the NASA Wallops Flight Center P-3A aircraft.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principal components and layout of the forty-channel AOL spectrometer subsystem.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Basic AOL fluorosensor data acquisition subsystem.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the actual flight lines traversed in the North Sea. Position data were recorded by the AOL in real-time from the onboard Litton LTN-51 inertial navigation system (INS.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the flight lines traversed during the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River mission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser-induced spectral waveforms obtained during execution of Flight Line 1/1 of the North Sea mission. Notice in (c) that very little chlorophyll a fluorescence mission is seen even though reasonably good water transmissivity is present, as indicated by the relatively large Raman backscatter signal level. Wratten 21 filter response is included for information purposes but has not been used to correct the laser-induced spectra shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plots of chlorophyll a, water Raman backscatter, and pigment x peak channels for Flight Lines 1/1 and 2/1 of the North Sea mission. To permit easy visual comparison a bias of fifty units has been added to all the data for Flight Line 11.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative contour plots of chlorophyll a, water Raman backscatter, and pigment x signals using data from the German Bight. Only the peak channel of each spectral band was used. Chlorophyll a and pigment x signals have been normalized by the Raman backscatter signal to correct for horizontal variations in spatial water transmissivity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time series or distance plots of chlorophyll a, pigment x fluorescence, and water Raman emissions obtained from Flight Line 4 of the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River mission. Chlorophyll a and pigment x data are not normalized in (a) but are shown normalized by the water Raman signal in (b).

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