Abstract

Complex indices of refraction for water near 25°C were obtained from six references, and the most representative values in the wavelength range of 2000 Å to 5 cm were selected. These were used to study the polarized reflectance and emissivity of both specular and wind-roughened surfaces as functions of wavelength and viewing angle. Applications to remote sensing of sea surface temperature and wave state are discussed, including effects of salinity.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, Appl. Opt. 14, 417 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 12, 555 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. M. Zoloratev, A. V. Demin, Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 157 (1977).
  6. O. A. Simpson, B. L. Bean, S. Perkowitz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1723 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, Infrared Phys. 18, 835 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. S. Ray, Appl. Opt. 11, 1836 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Parker, G. L. Abbott, in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, S. Katzoff, Ed., NASA SP 55 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 11–28.
  11. F. F. Hall, Appl. Opt. 3, 781 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Ohman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 903 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Marks, in Oceanography from Space (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 1965), p. 386.
  14. R. F. Basener, G. C. McCoyd, in Grumman Research Department Memorandum RM-360, Grumman Aerospace Corp. (1967).
  15. R. J. Wagner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Macmillan, New York, 1963), Chap. 7.
  17. M. Sidran, Remote Sensing Environ. 10, 101 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, Supplements lowtran 3B AFCRL-TR-76-0258, Environmental Research Paper 587, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Optical Division Project 7670, Hanscom AFB, Mass. (1976), pp. 12–16.
  19. D. E. Hobson, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 10, 2372 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

M. Sidran, Remote Sensing Environ. 10, 101 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, Infrared Phys. 18, 835 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

G. P. Ohman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 903 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Zoloratev, A. V. Demin, Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 157 (1977).

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1966 (1)

R. J. Wagner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1954 (1)

Abbott, G. L.

W. J. Parker, G. L. Abbott, in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, S. Katzoff, Ed., NASA SP 55 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 11–28.

Afsar, M. N.

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, Infrared Phys. 18, 835 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Basener, R. F.

R. F. Basener, G. C. McCoyd, in Grumman Research Department Memorandum RM-360, Grumman Aerospace Corp. (1967).

Bean, B. L.

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Macmillan, New York, 1963), Chap. 7.

Brown, O. B.

Cox, C.

Demin, A. V.

V. M. Zoloratev, A. V. Demin, Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 157 (1977).

Downing, H. D.

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Hale, G. M.

Hall, F. F.

Hasted, J. B.

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, Infrared Phys. 18, 835 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 902 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, D. E.

Jacobs, M. M.

Marks, W.

W. Marks, in Oceanography from Space (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 1965), p. 386.

McClatchey, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, Supplements lowtran 3B AFCRL-TR-76-0258, Environmental Research Paper 587, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Optical Division Project 7670, Hanscom AFB, Mass. (1976), pp. 12–16.

McCoyd, G. C.

R. F. Basener, G. C. McCoyd, in Grumman Research Department Memorandum RM-360, Grumman Aerospace Corp. (1967).

Munk, W.

Ohman, G. P.

G. P. Ohman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 903 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Parker, W. J.

W. J. Parker, G. L. Abbott, in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, S. Katzoff, Ed., NASA SP 55 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 11–28.

Perkowitz, S.

Querry, M. R.

Ray, P. S.

Selby, J. E. A.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, Supplements lowtran 3B AFCRL-TR-76-0258, Environmental Research Paper 587, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Optical Division Project 7670, Hanscom AFB, Mass. (1976), pp. 12–16.

Shettle, E. P.

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, Supplements lowtran 3B AFCRL-TR-76-0258, Environmental Research Paper 587, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Optical Division Project 7670, Hanscom AFB, Mass. (1976), pp. 12–16.

Sidran, M.

M. Sidran, Remote Sensing Environ. 10, 101 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, O. A.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Macmillan, New York, 1963), Chap. 7.

Wagner, R. J.

R. J. Wagner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Hobson, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 10, 2372 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoloratev, V. M.

V. M. Zoloratev, A. V. Demin, Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 157 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

G. P. Ohman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 903 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

M. N. Afsar, J. B. Hasted, Infrared Phys. 18, 835 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

R. J. Wagner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41, 138 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

V. M. Zoloratev, A. V. Demin, Opt. Spectrosc. 43, 157 (1977).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

M. Sidran, Remote Sensing Environ. 10, 101 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. E. A. Selby, E. P. Shettle, R. A. McClatchey, Supplements lowtran 3B AFCRL-TR-76-0258, Environmental Research Paper 587, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Optical Division Project 7670, Hanscom AFB, Mass. (1976), pp. 12–16.

W. J. Parker, G. L. Abbott, in Symposium on Thermal Radiation of Solids, S. Katzoff, Ed., NASA SP 55 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1964), pp. 11–28.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Macmillan, New York, 1963), Chap. 7.

W. Marks, in Oceanography from Space (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, 1965), p. 386.

R. F. Basener, G. C. McCoyd, in Grumman Research Department Memorandum RM-360, Grumman Aerospace Corp. (1967).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral variation of index of refraction n.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral variation of extinction coefficient k.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral variation of total reflectance R at different angles 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral variation of reflectance R polarized normal to the plane of reflection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral variation of reflectance R polarized parallel to the plane of reflection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral variation of the Brewster or pseudo-Brewster angle θb and of the percent polarization Pb of the radiation reflected at angle θb.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral variation of polarized reflectances and R and R of total reflectance R at the Brewster or pseudo-Brewster angle θb.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation with viewing angle θ of polarized emissivities and , of percent polarization Q of the thermally emitted radiation, and of percent polarization P of the reflected radiation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coordinate system for Cox and Munk1 facet slope angles β,γ and viewing angles θ,ϕ for wind-roughened water surfaces. Azimuth angles γ and ϕ are measured from the direction of the wind vector.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Facet slope angle β distribution probability for a wind-roughened sea, computed for various wind speeds by means of the Cox and Munk1 probability function. Curves are normalized to equal areas: (a) crosswind; (b) upwind–downwind.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation with viewing angle θ of polarized emissivities and , of total emissivity , and of percent polarization Q of the thermally emitted radiation for specular and wind-roughened water surfaces. Wind speed W = 14 m/sec.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Directional polarized reflectances R and R of wind-roughened water surfaces for wind speed W = 14 m/sec, optical wavelength λ = 170 μm, and various angles of incidence i.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Maximum Values of Extinction Coefficient k and Extremum Values of Index of Refraction n for Wavelengths λ in the Absorption Bands

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 0 exp ( - α x ) = I 0 exp [ - ( 4 π k λ ) x ] .
= 2 ( 1 + Z ) ;             = 2 ( 1 + Z ) ;
Z = S + cos 2 θ 2 cos θ ( S + A - sin 2 θ ) 1 / 2 ;
Z = S + ( A 2 + B 2 ) cos 2 θ 2 cos θ [ S ( A 2 + B 2 ) + ( A - sin 2 θ ) ( A 2 - B 2 ) + 2 A B 2 ] 1 / 2 ;
S = [ ( A - sin 2 θ ) 2 + B 2 ] 1 / 2 .
= 1 - R ;             = 1 - R .
= ½ ( + ) ;
R = ½ ( R + R ) ;
= 1 - R .
P = 100 · R - R R + R .
Q = 100 · - + .
B t = B 1 + B 2 + B 3 , B 1 = τ B s ;             B 2 = ( 1 - τ ) B ¯ a ;             B 3 = τ ( 1 - τ ) ( 1 - ) B ¯ r .

Metrics