Abstract

The theory, production process, and properties of wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) designed on the beam splitting principle are described. Typically these modules require no lenses, and the edge interference filter applied to the oblique polished single-mode or multimode fiber end face exhibits only minimal polarizing effects. Whereas all the fibers of multimode modules are identical in type, single-mode modules require a large-diameter core fiber for coupling out light. The characteristics of the couplers depend on the given type of fiber (single-mode or multimode), the light sources (laser diodes or LEDs), the channel separation, and the channel used (transmission or reflection). Insertion losses vary between 0.7 and 2 dB, far-end cross talk attenuation varies between 11 and 22 dB, and near-end cross talk attenuation exceeds 40 dB.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2180 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Ishio, T. Miki, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper C7-3.
  3. K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.
  4. T. Miki, H. Ishio, IEEE Trans. Communic. COM-26, 1082 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Winzer, A. Reichelt, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 217 (1980).
  6. W. J. Tomlinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).
  7. J. Conradi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).
  8. H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Auracher, Frequenz, 34, 52 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Winzer, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 50 (1979).
  11. A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).
  12. H. F. Mahlein, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 142 (1980).
  13. H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Acta 28, 29 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Laser Technol. 13, 13 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Reichelt, H. F. Mahlein, G. Winzer, in Technical Digest, Sixth ECOC, York, IEE Conf. Publ. No. 190, (1980), p. 294.
  17. R. E. Wagner, in Digest of 1979 Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WG3.
  18. A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).
  19. E. Miyauchi, T. Iwama, H. Nakajima, N. Tokoyo, K. Terai, Opt. Lett. 5, 321 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Uchida, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genova, 1978, p. 374.
  21. K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.
  22. S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4050 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. C. Chu, A. R. McCormick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595 (1978).
  24. A. Thelen, in Digest of Conference on Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA8; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 309 (1981).
  25. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, London, 1969).

1981 (2)

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Acta 28, 29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Laser Technol. 13, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (8)

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyauchi, T. Iwama, H. Nakajima, N. Tokoyo, K. Terai, Opt. Lett. 5, 321 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Winzer, A. Reichelt, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 217 (1980).

W. J. Tomlinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

J. Conradi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

F. Auracher, Frequenz, 34, 52 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 142 (1980).

1979 (3)

G. Winzer, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 50 (1979).

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).

1978 (2)

T. C. Chu, A. R. McCormick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595 (1978).

T. Miki, H. Ishio, IEEE Trans. Communic. COM-26, 1082 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1975 (1)

H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Auracher, F.

F. Auracher, Frequenz, 34, 52 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

Bickel, G. W.

A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).

Chu, T. C.

T. C. Chu, A. R. McCormick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595 (1978).

Conradi, J.

J. Conradi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

Gasparian, G. A.

A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).

Hamasaki, J.

H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Heyer, F.

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

Ishikawa, R.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.

Ishio, H.

T. Miki, H. Ishio, IEEE Trans. Communic. COM-26, 1082 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishio, T. Miki, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper C7-3.

Iwama, T.

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

Kuwahara, H.

H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, London, 1969).

Mahlein, H. F.

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Acta 28, 29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Laser Technol. 13, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Mahlein, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 142 (1980).

A. Reichelt, H. F. Mahlein, G. Winzer, in Technical Digest, Sixth ECOC, York, IEE Conf. Publ. No. 190, (1980), p. 294.

Matsushita, S.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

McCormick, A. R.

T. C. Chu, A. R. McCormick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595 (1978).

Michel, H.

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

Miki, T.

T. Miki, H. Ishio, IEEE Trans. Communic. COM-26, 1082 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishio, T. Miki, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper C7-3.

Minemura, K.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.

Miyauchi, E.

Moeller, R. P.

S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

Nelson, A. P.

A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).

Nomura, H.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

Rauscher, W.

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

Reichelt, A.

G. Winzer, A. Reichelt, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 217 (1980).

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

A. Reichelt, H. F. Mahlein, G. Winzer, in Technical Digest, Sixth ECOC, York, IEE Conf. Publ. No. 190, (1980), p. 294.

Saito, S.

H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S. K.

S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, S.

T. Uchida, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genova, 1978, p. 374.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.

Terai, K.

Thelen, A.

A. Thelen, in Digest of Conference on Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA8; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 309 (1981).

Tokoyo, N.

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2180 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genova, 1978, p. 374.

Ueki, A.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

Wagner, R. E.

R. E. Wagner, in Digest of 1979 Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WG3.

Winzer, G.

G. Winzer, A. Reichelt, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 217 (1980).

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

G. Winzer, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 50 (1979).

A. Reichelt, H. F. Mahlein, G. Winzer, in Technical Digest, Sixth ECOC, York, IEE Conf. Publ. No. 190, (1980), p. 294.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

T. C. Chu, A. R. McCormick, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 595 (1978).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. F. Mahlein, H. Michel, W. Rauscher, A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, Electron. Lett. 16, 584 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Frequenz (1)

F. Auracher, Frequenz, 34, 52 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Communic. (1)

T. Miki, H. Ishio, IEEE Trans. Communic. COM-26, 1082 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

H. Kuwahara, J. Hamasaki, S. Saito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-23, 179 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4050 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

W. J. Tomlinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

J. Conradi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1569A (1980).

Opt. Acta (1)

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Acta 28, 29 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. F. Mahlein, Opt. Laser Technol. 13, 13 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. (4)

G. Winzer, A. Reichelt, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 217 (1980).

G. Winzer, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 50 (1979).

A. Reichelt, G. Winzer, H. Michel, F. Auracher, F. Heyer, W. Rauscher, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 8, 130 (1979).

H. F. Mahlein, Siemens Res. Dev. Rep. 9, 142 (1980).

U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1)

A. P. Nelson, G. A. Gasparian, G. W. Bickel, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS AD/A-075467 (1979).

Other (8)

T. Uchida, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, Fourth ECOC, Genova, 1978, p. 374.

K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, H. Nomura, S. Matsushita, A. Ueki, in CLEOS, 18–26 Feb. 1980, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA2.

A. Reichelt, H. F. Mahlein, G. Winzer, in Technical Digest, Sixth ECOC, York, IEE Conf. Publ. No. 190, (1980), p. 294.

R. E. Wagner, in Digest of 1979 Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WG3.

H. Ishio, T. Miki, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper C7-3.

K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in Technical Digest, First International Conference, IOOC (IECE, Tokyo, 1977), paper B11-3.

A. Thelen, in Digest of Conference on Applied Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper WAA8; J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 309 (1981).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (Hilger, London, 1969).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fiber configurations in all-fiber directional couplers. (a) Prototype with graded-index fibers 1–4 and nonselective wavelength interference filter F; θ = 45°. (b) WDM variant with graded-index fibers 1–3(4) and wavelength-selective interference filter F; θ < 45°. (c) WDM variant with single-mode fibers 1 and 2 and large-diameter core fiber 3; for F and θ see (b). [Direction indicated by arrow refers to demultiplexer and the opposite direction to the multiplexer.]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reference model with fiber separation D for estimating the geometrical coupling loss for the optical path 1 → 3 (1 → 3′); for other explanations see text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index nB and common envelope zero g0s = g0p as a function of the refractive index nA (ns = 1.46; θ = 20°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectances Rs, Rp, and R for the s component, the p component, and unpolarized light of the edge filter S(H/2 L H/2)9S (nH = 2.1, nL = 1.5, ns = 1.46, θ = 20°, λ0 = 2475 nm, l = 1) as a function of wavelength λ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Some process steps in the production of WDM couplers in block technology: (a) insertion of fibers into V-shaped grooves of Si slices cemented to prisms and slabs; (b) halves of block after deposition of filter and prior to cementing; (c) separation of WDM couplers from the finished faceted block.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Faceted WDM coupler block and separated couplers (finished and unfinished).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured wavelength characteristic T(λ) of (a) edge interference filter S(H/2 L H/2)8S, l = 1, (b,c) narrowband filters, (d) intensity I(λ) of LEDs with peak emission at λ1 = 755 nm, and (e) λ2 = 825 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured wavelength characteristic T(λ) of edge interference filter S(H/2 L H/2)9: (a) l = 0 with high reflectance in the region of 830 nm and high transmittance around 1270 nm, together with (b) improved experimental curve for Δλ = 70 nm channel separation shifted slightly in the stopband of (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three-channel WDM one-way communication link with SWP filter FI in stopband of LWP filter FII. F1, F2, and F3 are narrowband filters for λ1 < λ2 < λ3.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Definition of the Parameters a1, a2, aN1, aN2, AN1, and AN2 used In Tables IIV

Tables Icon

Table II Insertion Losses aI and Respective Far-End and Near-End Cross Talk Attenuations aNI and ANI for Multimode WDM Couplers with a Channel Separation Δλ = 70 nm (LED: λ1 = 755 nm, Transmission Channel; λ2 = 825 nm, Reflection Channel)

Tables Icon

Table III Insertion Losses aI and Respective Far-End and Near-End Cross Talk Attenuations aNI and ANI for Multimode WDM Couplers with a Channel Separation Δλ = 440 nm (LED: λ1 = 830 nm, Reflection Channel; λ2 = 1270 nm, Transmission Channel)

Tables Icon

Table IV Insertion Losses aI and Respective Far-End and Near-End Cross Talk Attenuations aNI and ANI for Single-Mode WDM Couplers (LD: λ1 = 780 nm, Transmission Channel; λ2 = 858 nm, Reflection Channel)

Tables Icon

Table V Expected Insertion Losses aI for Three-Channel WDM Couplers (LED: Δλ1,2 = 70 nm, Δλ2,3 ≳ 350 nm)

Equations (11)

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D max = M B ¯ = M A ¯ = ( 2 r c + d + δ max ) / sin 2 Θ .
D min = ( d + δ min ) / sin 2 Θ .
D ¯ = ( D max + D min ) / 2 = ( r c + d + δ ) / sin 2 Θ ,
θ min = γ max = arc sin ( A N / n 0 )
g l i = 2 l + 1 - ( - 1 ) l ( 1 - g 0 i ) ;             l = 0 , 1 , 2 , ; i = s , p ,
g 0 i = 2 π arc cos ( 1 - η B i / η A i ) ( 1 + η S i 2 / η A i 2 ) ( 1 + η B i / η A i ) ( 1 - η S i 2 / η A i 2 ) .
g 0 s = g 0 p = 2 π arc cos ( n A / n S ) 2 - 1 + 2 cos 2 Θ ( n A / n S ) 2 ( 1 + 2 cos 2 Θ ) - 1 + 2 cos 2 Θ ,
n B = n S sin Θ × ( 1 + [ ( n A / n S ) 4 - 1 ] 2 [ ( n A / n S ) 2 - sin 2 Θ ] sin 2 Θ cos 4 Θ { [ ( n A / n S ) 2 - sin 2 Θ ] 2 - ( n A / n S ) 4 cos 4 Θ } 2 ) 1 / 2 .
Δ g LD = 1 - g 0 s - Δ g p = 1 - g 0 s - 2 π arcsin ( η A p - η B p ) / ( η A p + η B p ) ,
Δ g LED = 1 - 1 2 ( g 0 s + g 0 p ) ,
Δ g s - Δ g p = 2 π [ arcsin ( η A s - η B s ) / ( η A s + η B s ) - arcsin ( η A p - η B p ) / ( η A p + η B p ) ]

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