Abstract

A large-capacity high-speed holographic system has been developed for filing and retrieving the patent literature. This machine can store 280,000 pages of the Japanese patents journal (or the U.S. Official Gazette) and any one page can be retrieved within 1 sec. A high-resolution TV camera with 2110 scanning lines and a CRT display terminal with 1055 scanning lines were also developed to clearly represent fine drawings and letters in the patents. The system developed is equipped with a momentary 2.6-Mbyte electric one-frame memory for scanning mode conversion. Any image on the CRT can be printed out on a plain sheet of paper with a laser beam printer.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Okamoto et al. “Video Filing System,” Denshi Tokyo, IEEE 4, 1 (1965).
  2. S. Hayashi et al. “Development of Micro-Fiche Retrieval System HIPACS,” Hitachi Hyoron 41, 57, 12 (1975), in Japanese.
  3. K. Izawa, N. Nakayama, “Document Storage and Retrieval System,” in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper TUII4.
  4. A. Iwamoto et al. “A Large Capacity, High Retrieval Speed, Holographic Still Picture Filing System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth SMPTE Television Conference (SMPTE, Los Angeles, 1978).
  5. T. Sugaya, “Holographic Image File System for Patent Journals,” in Proceedings, SPSE Twentieth Fall Symposium on Electronic Imaging, Washington, D.C. (1980).
  6. J. E. Warnock, “The Display of Characters Using Gray Level Sample Arrays,” Q. Rep. SIGGRAPH-ACM 14, 302 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Iwamoto, Appl. Opt. 19, 215 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

J. E. Warnock, “The Display of Characters Using Gray Level Sample Arrays,” Q. Rep. SIGGRAPH-ACM 14, 302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwamoto, Appl. Opt. 19, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

S. Hayashi et al. “Development of Micro-Fiche Retrieval System HIPACS,” Hitachi Hyoron 41, 57, 12 (1975), in Japanese.

1965 (1)

T. Okamoto et al. “Video Filing System,” Denshi Tokyo, IEEE 4, 1 (1965).

Hayashi, S.

S. Hayashi et al. “Development of Micro-Fiche Retrieval System HIPACS,” Hitachi Hyoron 41, 57, 12 (1975), in Japanese.

Iwamoto, A.

A. Iwamoto, Appl. Opt. 19, 215 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iwamoto et al. “A Large Capacity, High Retrieval Speed, Holographic Still Picture Filing System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth SMPTE Television Conference (SMPTE, Los Angeles, 1978).

Izawa, K.

K. Izawa, N. Nakayama, “Document Storage and Retrieval System,” in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper TUII4.

Nakayama, N.

K. Izawa, N. Nakayama, “Document Storage and Retrieval System,” in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper TUII4.

Okamoto, T.

T. Okamoto et al. “Video Filing System,” Denshi Tokyo, IEEE 4, 1 (1965).

Sugaya, T.

T. Sugaya, “Holographic Image File System for Patent Journals,” in Proceedings, SPSE Twentieth Fall Symposium on Electronic Imaging, Washington, D.C. (1980).

Warnock, J. E.

J. E. Warnock, “The Display of Characters Using Gray Level Sample Arrays,” Q. Rep. SIGGRAPH-ACM 14, 302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Denshi Tokyo, IEEE (1)

T. Okamoto et al. “Video Filing System,” Denshi Tokyo, IEEE 4, 1 (1965).

Hitachi Hyoron (1)

S. Hayashi et al. “Development of Micro-Fiche Retrieval System HIPACS,” Hitachi Hyoron 41, 57, 12 (1975), in Japanese.

Q. Rep. SIGGRAPH-ACM (1)

J. E. Warnock, “The Display of Characters Using Gray Level Sample Arrays,” Q. Rep. SIGGRAPH-ACM 14, 302 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Izawa, N. Nakayama, “Document Storage and Retrieval System,” in CLEOS, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper TUII4.

A. Iwamoto et al. “A Large Capacity, High Retrieval Speed, Holographic Still Picture Filing System,” in Proceedings, Twelfth SMPTE Television Conference (SMPTE, Los Angeles, 1978).

T. Sugaya, “Holographic Image File System for Patent Journals,” in Proceedings, SPSE Twentieth Fall Symposium on Electronic Imaging, Washington, D.C. (1980).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image filing system performance. Various image filing systems are compared in terms of image retrieval time and maximum image capacity. Conventional microfilm systems (now the only commercially available filing systems) and an optical disk system can file ~10,000 images, which is a twentieth of that of the holographic file. The holographic file features short retrieval time; ~1 sec is needed to access any one image in the file.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Double-pulse waveforms from pass-band limited low-pass filters. Computer calculation of various bandwidth low-pass filter response (transmission bandwidth B) to double-pulse input reveals that the minimum transmission bandwidth needed to transmit and preserve the double-pulse waveform is ~1/(2.5τ). Pulses were assumed to have duration separated by 2τ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally determined requisite scanning density to allow recognition of the patents journals. Subjective evaluations (seven subjectives) on the raster scanned various size Japanese ideographs and letters of the alphabet on a CRT reveal that the minimum scanning line density is 4 line pairs/mm. The discrepancy between the present result and the computer calculation is believed to be caused by the gradation effect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Holographic image file retrieval system block diagram. Holographically reconstructed images are picked up by a specially developed high-resolution TV camera and displayed on a high-resolution CRT via a momentary one-frame electronic memory which has functions to convert raster modes, scanning speed, and interlacing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The retrieval terminal with a high-resolution 51-cm (20-in.) CRT is in the center of the figure. On the right is the laser beam hard copier; on the left is the holographic file and a one-frame memory.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Commercially available 13- × 18-cm (5- × 7-in.) silver halide photographic sheet film is used as the hologram sheet material. A single 5- × 5-mm hologram stores one patent page. The nine notches at the upper vertical end are used as sheet selection codes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The hologram to be retrieved is selected from a stack of 700 hologram sheets and, within the hologram sheet, by a row-selecting translatable sheet stopper and column-selecting rotatable optics. The illuminating light source is a pulsed Ar-ion laser. The reconstructed image is picked up by a high-resolution 5-cm (2-in.) vidicon camera.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One full page of the Japanese patents journal is retrieved from the file and displayed on a CRT in the normal mode. Both drawing (a) and document (b) are legible, and the fine details in Japanese ideographs are clearly resolved. The image displayed in the close-up mode (c) is the same as (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Page from the U.S. Official Gazette is displayed on the CRT in the close-up mode, where images are twice the normal mode and the raster area is reduced to 290(H) × 230(V) mm.

Tables (3)

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Table I Format of Japanese and U.S. Patents Journals

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Table II High-Resolution Camera Specifications

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Table III High-Definition CRT Display Specifications

Equations (2)

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B τ - 1 2.5 ,
R · V e - 2 ,

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